Category: Technology

Most People Don’t Know How Bikes Work

Most People Don’t Know How Bikes Work

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Why are bicycles stable? The most common answer is gyroscopic effects, but this is not right. This video was sponsored by Kiwico. Get 50% off your first month of any crate at https://kiwico.com/veritasium50

Huge thanks to Rick Cavallaro for creating this bike on short notice. Thanks to all the friends who participated in the filming. Rick was also responsible for the Blackbird Faster Than The Wind Downwind Cart. https://youtu.be/jyQwgBAaBag

Much of the information presented here on the stability of a riderless bicycle stems from original research at
Delft http://bicycle.tudelft.nl/schwab/Bicy…
and
Cornell http://ruina.tam.cornell.edu/research…

This line of bicycle-balance research was initiated by Jim Papadopoulos: https://www.nature.com/articles/535338a

Great videos on bikes and counter-steering:

MinutePhysics: How Do Bikes Stay Up? https://youtu.be/oZAc5t2lkvo

MinutePhysics: The Counterintuitive Physics of Turning a Bike: https://youtu.be/llRkf1fnNDM

Why Bicycles Do Not Fall – Arend Schwab TED talk: https://youtu.be/2Y4mbT3ozcA

Today I Found Out: We Still Don’t Know How Bicycles Work https://youtu.be/YWsK6rmsKSI

TU Delft – Smart motor in handlebars prevents bicycles from falling over: https://youtu.be/rBOQp2uY_lk

Andy Ruina Explains How Bicycles Balance Themselves: https://youtu.be/NcZCzr9ExKk

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More References:

TU Delft Bicycle Site: http://bicycle.tudelft.nl/schwab/Bicy…

Bicycle stability program: http://ruina.tam.cornell.edu/research…

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Luis Felipe, Anton Ragin, Paul Peijzel, S S, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Sam Lutfi, MJP, Gnare, Nick DiCandilo, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson,Ron Neal

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Written by Derek Muller
Filmed by Trenton Oliver, Raquel Nuno and Derek Muller
Edited by Derek Muller
Music from Epidemic Sound and Jonny Hyman
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Emily Zhang

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The Universe is Hostile to Computers

The Universe is Hostile to Computers

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Tiny particles from distant galaxies have caused plane accidents, election interference and game glitches. This video is sponsored by Brilliant. The first 200 people to sign up via https://brilliant.org/veritasium get 20% off a yearly subscription.

This video was inspired by the RadioLab Podcast “Bit Flip” https://ve42.co/BF — they’re brilliant science storytellers.

A Huge thanks to Dr Leif Scheick, Calla Cofield and the JPL Media Relations Team.

Thanks to Col Chris Hadfield. Check out his book: https://chrishadfield.ca/books/

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References:
J. F. Ziegler, “Terrestrial cosmic rays,” in IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 19-39, Jan. 1996, doi: 10.1147/rd.401.0019. — https://ve42.co/Ziegler1996

D. Binder, E. C. Smith and A. B. Holman, “Satellite Anomalies from Galactic Cosmic Rays,” in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 2675-2680, Dec. 1975, doi: 10.1109/TNS.1975.4328188 https://ve42.co/Binder1975

Ziegler, J. F., & Lanford, W. A. (1979). Effect of cosmic rays on computer memories. Science, 206(4420), 776-788 https://ve42.co/Ziegler1979

Drury, L. O. C. (2012). Origin of cosmic rays. Astroparticle Physics, 39, 52-60. https://ve42.co/Drury2012

Hess, V. (2018). On the observations of the penetrating radiation during seven balloon flights. arXiv preprint arXiv:1808.02927. –https://ve42.co/Hess2018

Carlson, P., & De Angelis, A. (2011). Nationalism and internationalism in science: the case of the discovery of cosmic rays. The European Physical Journal H, 35(4), 309-329. — https://ve42.co/Carlson2011

Höeffgen, S. K., Metzger, S., & Steffens, M. (2020). Investigating the effects of cosmic rays on space electronics. Frontiers in Physics, 8, 318. — https://ve42.co/Hoeffgen2020

Edmonds, L. D., Barnes, C. E., & Scheick, L. Z. (2000). An introduction to space radiation effects on microelectronics. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. — https://ve42.co/Edmonds2000

NASA Mars 2020 website covering the specifications of the Perseverance Rover https://ve42.co/RoverBrains

Australian Government Australian Transport Safety Bureau report on QF72 — https://ve42.co/ASTBQantas

Australian Government Australian Transport Safety Bureau summary on QF72 –https://ve42.co/ASTBQantas2

Great Blog post about QF72 — https://ve42.co/DempseyQantas

Michael Barr’s report on the Toyota acceleration issue –https://ve42.co/Barr2015

NASA’s Report on Toyota — https://ve42.co/NASAToyota

T. C. May and M. H. Woods, “A New Physical Mechanism for Soft Errors in Dynamic Memories,” 16th International Reliability Physics Symposium, 1978, pp. 33-40, doi: 10.1109/IRPS.1978.362815. –https://ve42.co/May1978

P. M. O’Neill and G. D. Badhwar, “Single event upsets for Space Shuttle flights of new general purpose computer memory devices,” in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1755-1764, Oct. 1994, doi: 10.1109/23.317386. — https://ve42.co/ONeill1994

Wikipedia about radiation hardening — https://ve42.co/RadHardening

Toward Monitoring Fault-Tolerant Embedded
Systems (Extended Abstract) — https://ve42.co/Goodloe2009

Article about speed run — https://ve42.co/BurttSpeedrun

Article about speed run — https://ve42.co/BountySpeedrun

Article about redundant systems in spaceflight — https://ve42.co/NASAComputers

Article about the PowerPC750 — https://ve42.co/Wener-FlignerNASA

Fuglesang C, Narici L, Picozza P, Sannita WG. Phosphenes in low earth orbit: survey responses from 59 astronauts. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2006 Apr;77(4):449-52. PMID: 16676658. — https://ve42.co/Fuglesang2006

Good article about Cosmic Rays causing flashes — https://ve42.co/AtkinsonEye

Good article about radiation resistance — https://ve42.co/RoverResistance

Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Paul Peijzel, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Sam Lutfi, MJP, Gnare, Nick DiCandilo, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

Written by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev
Animation by Iván Tello, Mike Radjabov, Fabio Albertelli, Jakub Misiek and Charlie Davies
SFX by Shaun Clifford
Filmed by Derek Muller, Raquel Nuno, and Emily Zhang
Edited by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev
SFX by Shaun Clifford
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Rover Footage From NASA/JPL-Caltech
QF72 footage from the Smithsonian channel https://youtu.be/H3q5S9PCoJA
SM64 footage from https://ve42.co/pannenkoek2012
Music from Epidemic Sound
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Emily Zhang

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I Rented A Helicopter To Settle A Physics Debate

I Rented A Helicopter To Settle A Physics Debate

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The story of a controversial physics question on the qualifying exam for the 2014 US Physics Olympiad team. How does a uniform cable beneath a helicopter hang? Visit https://SimpliSafe.com/veritasium to learn more and to get at least 30% off your SimpliSafe security system! Thanks to SimpliSafe for sponsoring a portion of this video.

Thanks to Scott Smith and the Perris Valley Airport for hosting us. You can follow their social media @skydive_perris and learn more about them at https://skydiveperris.com/
Thanks to Craig Hosking for being our expert helicopter pilot.
Thanks to Professor Paul Stanley for the interview and for writing such an interesting question.

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References:
The Exam — https://ve42.co/AAPT2014Exam
The Solution — https://ve42.co/AAPT2014Solutions

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: S S, Andrew, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, MJP, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Big Badaboom, Ludovic Robillard, jim buckmaster, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Written by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang, and Petr Lebedev
Filmed by Derek Muller, Trenton Oliver, and Emily Zhang
Edited by Trenton Oliver
Animation by Mike Radjabov
Music from Epidemic Sounds
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang

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The Genius of 3D Printed Rockets

The Genius of 3D Printed Rockets

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3D printed rockets save on up front tooling, enable rapid iteration, decrease part count, and facilitate radically new designs. For your chance to win 2 seats on one of the first Virgin Galactic flights to Space and support a great cause, go to https://www.omaze.com/veritasium

Thanks to Tim Ellis and everyone at Relativity Space for the tour!
https://www.relativityspace.com/
https://youtube.com/c/RelativitySpace

Special thanks to Scott Manley for the interview and advising on aerospace engineering.
Check out his channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/szyzyg

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References:
Benson, T. (2021). Rocket Parts. NASA. — https://ve42.co/RocketParts

Boen, B. (2009). Winter Wonder: Rocket Icicles. NASA. — https://ve42.co/EngineIcicles

Hall, N. (2021). Rocket Thrust Equation. NASA. — https://ve42.co/RocketEqn

Benson, T. (2021). Rocket Thrust. NASA. — https://ve42.co/RocketThrust

Regenerative Cooling — https://ve42.co/RegenCooling

How A Gold Bullet Almost Destroyed A Space Shuttle by Scott Manley — https://ve42.co/ManleyEngine

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Written by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang
Animation by Mike Radjabov
Filmed by Derek Muller, Raquel Nuno, Trenton Oliver, and Emily Zhang
Edited by Trenton Oliver
SFX by Shaun Clifford
Additional video supplied by Getty Images & Pond5
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang

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Why You Should Want Driverless Cars On Roads Now

Why You Should Want Driverless Cars On Roads Now

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How close are we to having fully autonomous vehicles on the roads? Are they safe? In Chandler, Arizona a fleet of Waymo vehicles are already in operation. Waymo sponsored this video and provided access to their technology and personnel. Check out their safety report here: https://waymo.com/safety/

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References:

Waymo Safety Reports — https://waymo.com/safety/

Driving Statistics — https://ve42.co/DrivingStats

The Real Moral Dilemma of Self-Driving Cars https://ve42.co/SelfDriving

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters:
Alvaro naranjo, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Animation by Fabio Albertelli and Jakub Misiek
Edited by Trenton Oliver
Audio Mix and SFX by Shaun Clifford
Music by Epidemic Sound https://epidemicsound.com
Additional video supplied by Getty Images and Pond 5
Produced by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang and Petr Lebedev

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This Unstoppable Robot Could Save Your Life

This Unstoppable Robot Could Save Your Life

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This robot has applications to archaeology, space exploration, and search and rescue — with a simple elegant design inspired by a plant. Sign up to Morning Brew for free today: https://ve42.co/mb​

Make your own Vine Robot! — https://www.vinerobots.org​
Special thanks to A/Prof. Elliot Hawkes, Nicholas Naclerio, Margaret Coad, David Haggerty for appearing in this video and showing off your amazing robots. For more info on vine (and other types of) robots check out https://ve42.co/HawkesLab​, and https://ve42.co/CHARM​

Research at UCSB supported in part by the National Science Foundation grant #1944816​, by an Early Career Faculty grant from NASA’s Space Technology Research Grants Program, and by the Packard Foundation.

B-roll footage of robots from the supplementary materials of (Hawkes et al., 2017) https://ve42.co/VineVideos​, and from Stanford University https://ve42.co/StanfordVideo​

Additional info on the intubation vine robot here: https://www.wardenchem.com/vine​

References: Hawkes, E. W., Blumenschein, L. H., Greer, J. D., & Okamura, A. M. (2017). A soft robot that navigates its environment through growth. Science Robotics, 2(8). — https://ve42.co/Hawkes2017​

Coad, M. M., Blumenschein, L. H., Cutler, S., Zepeda, J. A. R., Naclerio, N. D., El-Hussieny, H., … & Okamura, A. M. (2019). Vine robots: Design, teleoperation, and deployment for navigation and exploration. IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, 27(3), 120-132. — https://ve42.co/Coad2019​

Blumenschein, L. H., Coad, M. M., Haggerty, D. A., Okamura, A. M., & Hawkes, E. W. (2020). Design, modeling, control, and application of everting vine robots. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 7. — https://ve42.co/Blumenschein2020​

Haggerty, D. A., Naclerio, N. D., & Hawkes, E. W. (2019, November). Characterizing environmental interactions for soft growing robots. In 2019 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (pp. 3335-3342). IEEE. — https://ve42.co/Haggerty2019​

Naclerio, N. D., Hubicki, C. M., Aydin, Y. O., Goldman, D. I., & Hawkes, E. W. (2018, October). Soft robotic burrowing device with tip-extension and granular fluidization. In 2018 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (pp. 5918-5923). IEEE. — https://ve42.co/Naclerio19​

Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal


Edited by Trenton Oliver
Animation by Ivan Tello
Filmed by Derek Muller
Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci
Music by Jonny Hyman and from Epidemic Sound https://epidemicsound.com