Tag: India

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Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar, Indian Cricketer, Greatest Batsman of his Generation

Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar

Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar is an Indian cricketer widely acknowledged as the greatest batsman of his generation. Wikipedia

Born: April 24, 1973 (age 40), Mumbai
Height: 1.65 m
Awards: Wisden Cricketers of the Year, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna

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Parents: Rajni Tendulkar, Ramesh Tendulkar

Sachin Tendulkar

Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar (Listeni/səˈɪn tɛnˈdlkər/; born 24 April 1973) is a former Indian cricketer widely acknowledged as the greatest batsman of his generation.[2][3] He took up cricket at age of eleven, made his Test debut against Pakistan at the age of sixteen, and went on to represent Mumbai domestically and India internationally for close to twenty four years. He is the first player to score one hundred international centuries, the first player to score a double century in a One Day International, and thus far the only to complete 34,000 runs in international cricket.[4][5][6][7] On 5 October 2013, he became the 16th player and first Indian to aggregate 50,000 runs in all recognized cricket (First-class cricket, List A cricket and Twenty20 combined).[8][9][10]

In 2002, Wisden Cricketers’ Almanack ranked him the second greatest Test batsman of all time, behind Don Bradman, and the second greatest one-day-international (ODI) batsman of all time, behind Viv Richards.[11] Tendulkar was a part of the 2011 Cricket World Cup winning Indian team in the later part of his career, his first such win in six World Cup appearances for India.[12] He was also the recipient of “Player of the Tournament” award of the 2003 Cricket World Cup held in South Africa. In October 2013, he became the only Indian cricketer to be named in an all-time Test World XI to mark the 150th anniversary of Wisden Cricketers’ Almanack.[13][14][15][16]

Tendulkar has been honoured with the Padma Vibhushan award, India’s second highest civilian award, and the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award, India’s highest sporting honour. Tendulkar won the 2010 Sir Garfield Sobers Trophy for cricketer of the year at the ICC awards.[17] In 2012, Tendulkar was nominated to Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Parliament of India.[18] He was also the first sportsperson and the first one without aviation background to be awarded the honorary rank of Group Captain by the Indian Air Force. In 2012, he was named as an Honorary Member of the Order of Australia.[19].

On 23 December 2012, Tendulkar announced his retirement from ODIs[20][21][22][23] and from Twenty20 format in May 2013. He retired from cricket on 16th November 2013 after playing his 200th Test match, against the West Indies in Mumbai’s Wankhede Stadium.[24][25][26]

Early years and personal life

Tendulkar was born at Nirmal Nursing Home on 24 April 1973. His father Ramesh Tendulkar was a reputed Marathi novelist and his mother Rajni worked in the insurance industry.[27] Ramesh named Tendulkar after his favourite music director, Sachin Dev Burman. Tendulkar has three elder siblings: two half-brothers Nitin and Ajit, and a half-sister Savita. They were Ramesh’s children from his first marriage.[28] He spent his formative years in the Sahitya Sahawas Cooperative Housing Society, Bandra (East). As a young boy, Tendulkar was considered a bully, and often picked up fights with new children in his school.[29] He also showed an interest in tennis, idolising John McEnroe.[30] To help curb his mischievous and bullying tendencies, Ajit introduced him to cricket in 1984. He introduced the young Sachin to Ramakant Achrekar, a famous cricket coach and a club cricketer of repute, at Shivaji Park, Dadar.

Achrekar was impressed with Tendulkar’s talent and advised him to shift his schooling to Sharadashram Vidyamandir (English) High School,[1] a school at Dadar which had a dominant cricket team and had produced many notable cricketers.[31] Prior to this, Tendulkar had attended the Indian Education Society’s New English School in Bandra (East).[31] He was also coached under the guidance of Achrekar at Shivaji Park in the mornings and evenings.[32] Tendulkar would practice for hours on end in the nets. If he became exhausted, Achrekar would put a one-rupee coin on the top of the stumps, and the bowler who dismissed Tendulkar would get the coin. If Tendulkar passed the whole session without getting dismissed, the coach would give him the coin. Tendulkar now considers the 13 coins he won then as some of his most prized possessions.[33] He moved in with his aunt and uncle, who lived near Shivaji Park, during this period, due to his hectic schedule.[31]

Sachin Tendulkar and his wife Anjali

Meanwhile at school, he developed a reputation as a child prodigy. He had become a common conversation point in local cricketing circles, where there were suggestions already that he would become one of the greats. Sachin consistenly featured in his school Shardashram Vidyamandir (English) team in Matunga Gujarati Seva Mandal (popularly coined MGSM Shield).[34] Besides school cricket, he also played club cricket, initially representing John Bright Cricket Club in Mumbai’s premier club cricket tournament, the Kanga League,[31] and later went on to play for the Cricket Club of India.[35][36][37] In 1987, at the age of 14, he attended the MRF Pace Foundation in Madras (now Chennai) to train as a fast bowler, but Australian fast bowler Dennis Lillee, who took a world record 355 Test wickets, was unimpressed, suggesting that Tendulkar focus on his batting instead.[38] On January 20, 1987, he also turned out as substitute for Imran Khan‘s side in an exhibition game at Brabourne Statdium in Mumbai,to mark the golden jubilee of Cricket Club of India.[39] A couple of months later, former Indian batsman Sunil Gavaskar gave him a pair of his own ultra light pads and consoled him to not get disheartened for not getting the Mumbai Cricket Association’s “Best junior cricket award”(He was 14 years that time). “It was the greatest source of encouragement for me,” Tendulkar said nearly 20 years later after surpassing Gavaskar’s world record of 34 Test centuries.[40][41] Sachin served as a ballboy in 1987 Cricket World Cup when India played against England in the semifinal in Mumbai.[42][43] His season in 1988 was extraordinary, with Tendulkar scoring a century in every innings he played. He was involved in an unbroken 664-run partnership in a Lord Harris Shield inter-school game against St. Xavier’s High School in 1988 with his friend and team-mate Vinod Kambli, who would also go on to represent India. The destructive pair reduced one bowler to tears and made the rest of the opposition unwilling to continue the game. Tendulkar scored 326 (not out) in this innings and scored over a thousand runs in the tournament.[44] This was a record partnership in any form of cricket until 2006, when it was broken by two under-13 batsmen in a match held at Hyderabad in India.

On 24 May 1995,[45] at the age of 22, Tendulkar married Anjali, a paediatrician and daughter of Gujarati industrialist Anand Mehta and British social worker Annabel Mehta. Sachin’s father-in-law, Anand Mehta, is a seven-time national bridge champion.[46] Anjali is six years his senior.[47] “”I first met him at the Mumbai airport when he returned from his first tour of England in 1990, after scoring his maiden Test ton.I was there to pick up my mother and Sachin was arriving with the Indian team. That’s where we saw each other for the first time… we had a courtship of five years and got married in 1995. We had got engaged a year before that in 1994 and that was in New Zealand,” Anjali quoted said in a published interview.[48]They have two children, Sara (born 12 October 1997) and Arjun (born 24 September 1999). Arjun, a left handed batsman, has recently been included in under-14 probables list of Mumbai Cricket Association for off-season training camp. In January 2013 he was selected in Mumbai under-14 team for the west zone league[49]

Tendulkar is the 51st richest sportsman in the world according to Forbes’ list of world’s highest-paid athletes for the year 2013, with his total earnings estimated to be USD 22 million.[50][51][52] In October 2013, the net worth of Tendulkar was estimated at USD 160 million by Wealth X, making him India’s wealthiest cricket player.[53][54]


Tendulkar is an ardent devotee of Sathya Sai Baba of Puttaparthi.[55][56][57] He has visited Puttaparthi on several occasions to seek Baba’s blessings.[55][58] In 1997, Tendulkar captained the Indian National side, playing against a World Eleven team, in the Unity Cup which was held at the hill view stadium in Puttaparthi, in Baba’s presence.[59][60] After Sai Baba’s death, Tendulkar broke into tears when he saw the body of Baba in Puttaparthi, and cancelled his birthday celebrations.[61][62][63] The cricketer is also known to celebrate Ganesh Chaturthi at home and frequently visits temples during night when it is calm and quiet.[64][65] The cricketer has also offered his prayers at several other Hindu temples across the country.[66][67] He performed the rituals such as Nāga Dosha Pooja and Sarpa Samskara in 2006 at the Kukke Subramanya Temple in Mangalore[68][69][70][71].

Early domestic career

On 14 November 1987, Tendulkar was selected to represent Mumbai in the Ranji Trophy, India’s premier domestic first-class cricket tournament, for the 1987–88 season. However, he was not selected for the final eleven in any of the matches, though he was often used as a substitute fielder.[31] He narrowly missed out playing alongside his idol Gavaskar, who had retired from all forms of cricket after the 1987 Cricket World Cup.[31] A year later, on 11 December 1988, aged just 15 years and 232 days, Tendulkar made his debut for Mumbai against Gujarat at home and scored 100 not out in that match, making him the youngest Indian to score a century on first-class debut. He was handpicked to play for the team by the then Mumbai captain Dilip Vengsarkar after watching him easily negotiating India’s best fast bowler at the time, Kapil Dev, in the Wankhede Stadium nets,[1] where the Indian team had come to play against the touring New Zealand team. He followed this by scoring a century in his first Deodhar and Duleep Trophies, which are also Indian domestic tournaments.[72]

Tendulkar finished the 1988–89 season as Mumbai’s highest run-scorer.[note 1][73] He also made an unbeaten century in the Irani Trophy match against Delhi at the start of the 1989–90 season, playing for the Rest of India.[74] Sachin was picked for young Indian team to tour England twice,under the Star Cricket Club banner in 1988 and 1989.[75][76]

In 1992, at the age of 19, Tendulkar became the first overseas-born player to represent Yorkshire, which prior to Tendulkar joining the team, never selected players even from other English counties.[1][note 2] Selected for Yorkshire as a replacement for the injured Australian fast bowler Craig McDermott, Tendulkar played 16 first-class matches for the county and scored 1070 runs at an average of 46.52.[77]

His first double century(204*) was for Mumbai while playing against the visiting Australian team at the Brabourne Stadium in 1998.[1][78] He is the only player to score a century in all three of his domestic first-class debuts.[79] Sachin scored a brilliant 233* against Tamil Nadu in Ranji Trophy semifinal in April 2000 in Mumbai,which he still rates as one of his best in Ranji career.[80][81][82]

International career

Early career

Raj Singh Dungarpur is credited for the selection of Tendulkar for the Indian tour of Pakistan in late 1989,[83] and that also after just one first class season.[84] The Indian selection committee had shown interest in selecting Tendulkar for the tour of the West Indies held earlier that year, but eventually did not select him, as they did not want him to be exposed to the dominant fast bowlers of the West Indies so early in his career. Tendulkar made his Test debut against Pakistan in Karachi in November 1989 aged just 16 years and 223 days. He made just 15 runs, being bowled by Waqar Younis, who also made his debut in that match, but was noted for how he handled numerous blows to his body at the hands of the Pakistani pace attack.[85] In the fourth and final Test in Sialkot, he was hit on the nose by a bouncer bowled by Younis, but he declined medical assistance and continued to bat even as he gushed blood from it.[86] In a 20 over exhibition game in Peshawar, held in parallel with the bilateral series, Tendulkar made 53 runs off 18 balls, including an over in which he scored 27 runs off leg-spinner Abdul Qadir.[87][note 3] This was later called “one of the best innings I have seen” by the then Indian captain Krishnamachari Srikkanth.[88] In all, he scored 215 runs at an average of 35.83 in the Test series, and was dismissed without scoring a run in the only One Day International (ODI) he played.[89][90]

The series was followed by a tour of New Zealand in which he scored 117 runs at an average of 29.25 in Tests including an innings of 88 in the second Test.[91] He was dismissed without scoring in one of the two one-day games he played, and scored 36 in the other.[92] On his next tour, to England in July–August 1990, he became the second youngest cricketer to score a Test century as he made 119 not out in the second Test at Old Trafford in Manchester.[86] Wisden described his innings as “a disciplined display of immense maturity” and also wrote:[93]

“He looked the embodiment of India’s famous opener, Gavaskar, and indeed was wearing a pair of his pads. While he displayed a full repertoire of strokes in compiling his maiden Test hundred, most remarkable were his off-side shots from the back foot. Though only 5ft 5in tall, he was still able to control without difficulty short deliveries from the English pacemen.”

Tendulkar further enhanced his reputation as a future great during the 1991–1992 tour of Australia held before the 1992 Cricket World Cup, that included an unbeaten 148 in the third Test Sydney and 114 on a fast, bouncing pitch in the final Test at Perth against a world-class pace attack comprising Merv Hughes, Bruce Reid and Craig McDermott. Hughes commented to Allan Border at the time that “This little prick’s going to get more runs than you, AB.”[94]

Rise through the ranks

Tendulkar’s performance through the years 1994–1999 coincided with his physical peak, in his early twenties. On the day of the Hindu festival Holi, Tendulkar was told to open the batting at Auckland against New Zealand in 1994.[95] He went on to make 82 runs off 49 balls. He scored his first ODI century on 9 September 1994 against Australia in Sri Lanka at Colombo. It had taken him 79 ODIs to score a century.

Tendulkar waits at the bowler’s end.

Tendulkar’s rise continued when he was the leading run scorer at the 1996 World Cup, scoring two centuries.[96] He was the only Indian batsman to perform in the infamous semi-final against Sri Lanka. Tendulkar fell amid a batting collapse and the match referee, Clive Lloyd awarded Sri Lanka the match after the crowd began rioting and throwing litter onto the field.

After the World Cup, in the same year against Pakistan at Sharjah, Indian captain Mohammed Azharuddin was going through a lean patch. Tendulkar and Navjot Singh Sidhu both made centuries to set a then record partnership for the second wicket. After getting out, Tendulkar found Azharuddin in two minds about whether he should bat. Tendulkar convinced Azharuddin to bat and Azharuddin subsequently unleashed 29 runs in a mere 10 balls. It enabled India to post a score in excess of 300 runs for the first time in an ODI. India went on to win that match.

This was the beginning of a period at the top of the batting world, culminating in the Australian tour of India in early 1998, with Tendulkar scoring three consecutive centuries. These were characterised by a premeditated plan to target Australian spinners Shane Warne and Gavin Robertson, to whom he regularly charged down the pitch to drive over the infield. This technique worked as India beat Australia. The test match success was followed by two scintillating knocks in a tournament in Sharjah where he scored two consecutive centuries in a must-win game and then in finals against Australia tormenting Shane Warne once again. Following the series Warne ruefully joked that he was having nightmares about his Indian nemesis.[97] He also had a role with the ball in that series, including a five wicket haul in an ODI. Set 310 runs to win, Australia were cruising comfortably at 203 for 3 in the 31st over when Tendulkar turned the match for India taking wickets of Michael Bevan, Steve Waugh, Darren Lehmann, Tom Moody and Damien Martyn for just 32 runs in 10 overs.[98]

Tendulkar single-handedly won the ICC 1998 quarterfinal at Dhaka to pave way for India’s entry into the semifinals, when he took four Australian wickets after scoring 141 runs in just 128 balls.

The inaugural Asian Test Championship took place in February and March 1999. Held just twice, the 1999 championship was contested by India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.[99] Eden Gardens hosted the first match, in which Tendulkar was run out for nine after colliding with Pakistan bowler Shoaib Akhtar. The crowd’s reaction to the dismissal was to throw objects at Akhtar, and the players were taken off the field. The match resumed after Tendulkar and the president of the ICC appealed to the crowd, however further rioting meant that the match was finished in front of a crowd of just 200 people.[100] Tendulkar scored his 19th Test century in the second Test and the match resulted in a draw with Sri Lanka.[101] India did not progress to the final, which was won by Pakistan, and refused to participate the next time the championship was held to increasing political tensions between India and Pakistan.[102]

A chronic back problem flared up when Pakistan toured India in 1999, with India losing the historic Test at Chepauk despite a gritty century from Tendulkar himself. The worst was yet to come as Professor Ramesh Tendulkar, Tendulkar’s father, died in the middle of the 1999 Cricket World Cup. Tendulkar flew back to India to attend the final rituals of his father, missing the match against Zimbabwe. However, he returned with a bang to the World cup scoring a century (unbeaten 140 off 101 balls) in his very next match against Kenya in Bristol. He dedicated this century to his father.[103]


Tendulkar’s record as captain
Matches Won Lost Drawn Tied No result
Test[104] 25 4 9 12 0
ODI[105] 73 23 43 2 6

Tendulkar’s two tenures as captain of the Indian cricket team were not very successful. When Tendulkar took over as captain in 1996, it was with huge hopes and expectations. However, by 1997 the team was performing poorly. Azharuddin was credited with saying “Nahin jeetega! Chote ki naseeb main jeet nahin hai!”,[106] which translates into: “He won’t win! It’s not in the small one’s destiny!”.[107]

Tendulkar, succeeding Azharuddin as captain for his second term, then led India on a tour of Australia, where the visitors were comprehensively beaten 3–0 by the newly crowned world champions.[108] Tendulkar, however, won the player of the tournament award as well as player of the match in one of the games. After another Test series defeat, this time by a 0–2 margin at home against South Africa, Tendulkar resigned, and Sourav Ganguly took over as captain in 2000.

Tendulkar remains an integral part of the Indian team’s strategic processes. He is often seen in discussion with the captain, at times actively involved in building strategies. Former captain Rahul Dravid publicly acknowledged that Tendulkar had been suggesting moves such as the promotion of Irfan Pathan up the batting order which, although only temporary, had an immediate effect on the team’s fortunes. In 2007, Tendulkar was appointed vice-captain to captain Rahul Dravid.[109] During the Indian team’s 2007 tour of England, Dravid’s desire to resign from the captaincy became known. The BCCI President Sharad Pawar personally offered the captaincy to Tendulkar.[109] However, Tendulkar asked Pawar not to appoint him captain, instead recommending Mahendra Singh Dhoni to take over the reins.[109] Pawar later revealed this conversation, crediting Tendulkar for first forwarding the name of Dhoni, who since achieved much success as captain.[109]

Injuries and decline amid surpassing Bradman’s haul

Sachin Tendulkar continued performing well in Test cricket in 2001 and 2002, with some pivotal performances with both bat and ball. Tendulkar took three wickets on the final day of the famous Kolkata Test against Australia in 2001. Tendulkar took the key wickets of Matthew Hayden and Adam Gilchrist, centurions in the previous test.

In the 2002 series in the West Indies, Tendulkar started well, scoring 79 in the first test, and 117 in the first innings of the second.In the second test at Port of Spain, Sachin Tendulkar scored his 29th Test century in his 93rd test match,to equal Sir Donald Bradman‘s record of 29 Test hundreds.[110][111][112][113] Then, in a hitherto unprecedented sequence, he scored 0, 0, 8 and 0 in the next four innings, getting out to technical “defects” and uncharacteristically poor strokes. He returned to form in the last test scoring 41 and 86. However, India lost the series. This might have been the beginning of the “decline” phase in his career which lasted till 2006.In third test match against England in August 2002,Sachin scored his 30th test century to surpass Bradman’s haul, in his 99th test match.[114][115] The next test match was Sachin’s 100 test match.

Tendulkar made 673 runs in 11 matches in the 2003 Cricket World Cup, helping India reach the final. While Australia retained the trophy that they had won in 1999, Tendulkar was given the Man of the Tournament award.

He continued to score heavily in ODI cricket that year, with two hundreds in a tri series involving New Zealand and Australia.

The drawn series as India toured Australia in 2003/04 saw Tendulkar making his mark in the last Test of the series, with 241 not out in Sydney, putting India in a virtually unbeatable position. He followed up the innings with an unbeaten 60 in the second innings of the test. Prior to this test match, he had had an unusually horrible run of form, failing in all six innings in the preceding three tests. It was no aberration that 2003 was his worst year in test cricket, with an average of 17.25 and just one fifty.

Tendulkar scored an unbeaten 194 against Pakistan at Multan in the following series. India declared before Tendulkar reached 200; had he done so it would have been the fourth time he passed the landmark in Tests.[116] In meeting with the press that evening, Tendulkar stated that he was disappointed and that the declaration had taken him by surprise.[117] Many former cricketers commented that Dravid’s declaration was in bad taste.[118][119] After India won the match, the captain Rahul Dravid stated that the matter was spoken internally and put to rest.[120]

Tennis elbow then took its toll on Tendulkar, leaving him out of the side for most of the year, coming back only for the last two tests when Australia toured India in 2004. He played a part in India’s victory in Mumbai in that series with a fast 55, though Australia took the series 2–1.

On 10 December 2005 at Feroz Shah Kotla, Tendulkar scored his record-breaking 35th Test century, against the Sri Lankans. After this, Tendulkar endured the longest spell of his career without a Test century: 17 innings elapsed before he scored 101 against Bangladesh in May 2007.[121] Tendulkar scored his 39th ODI hundred on 6 February 2006 in a match against Pakistan. He followed with a run-a-ball 42 in the second one-day international against Pakistan on 11 February 2006, and then a 95 in hostile, seaming conditions on 13 February 2006 in Lahore, which set up an Indian victory. On 19 March 2006, after scoring an unconvincing 1 off 21 balls against England in the first innings of the third Test in his home ground, Wankhede, Tendulkar was booed off the ground by a section of the crowd,[122] the first time that he had ever faced such flak. Tendulkar was to end the three-Test series without a single half-century to his credit, and news of a shoulder operation raised more questions about his longevity. In July 2006, the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) announced that Tendulkar had overcome his injury problem following an operation and rehabilitation programme and was available for selection, and he was eventually selected for the next series.

Tendulkar’s comeback came in the DLF cup in Malaysia and he was the only Indian batsman to shine. In his comeback match, against West Indies on 14 September 2006, Tendulkar responded to his critics who believed that his career was inexorably sliding with his 40th ODI century. Though he scored 141 not out, West Indies won the rain-affected match by the D/L method.

During the preparation for the 2007 World Cup, Tendulkar was criticised by Greg Chappell on his attitude.[123] As per the report, Chappell felt that Tendulkar would be more useful down the order, while the latter felt that he would be better off opening the innings, the role he had played for most of his career. Chappell also believed that Tendulkar’s repeated failures were hurting the team’s chances. In a rare show of emotion, Tendulkar hit out at the comments attributed to Chappell by pointing out that no coach has ever suggested his attitude towards cricket is incorrect. On 7 April 2007, the Board of Control for Cricket in India issued a notice to Tendulkar asking for an explanation for his comments made to the media.[124]

At the World Cup in the West Indies, Tendulkar and the Indian cricket team, led by Rahul Dravid had a dismal campaign. Tendulkar, who was pushed to bat lower down the order had scores of 7 (Bangladesh), 57 not out (Bermuda) and 0 (Sri Lanka). As a result, former Australian captain Ian Chappell, brother of the then Indian coach Greg, called for Tendulkar to retire in his column for Mumbai’s Mid Day newspaper.[125]

During this period from about 2002 to 2006–7, Tendulkar’s batting often seemed to be a shadow of its former self. He was inconsistent, and his big knocks mostly came in sedate, accumulative, uncharacteristic fashion. He seemed to have either cut out or lost the ability to play many shots, including the hook and pull and many other aerial strokes. He also developed a tendency to go without scoring much for long periods and become overtly defensive. While players such as Ricky Ponting and Jacques Kallis were at the peak of their careers, Sachin’s seemed to be in terminal decline. There were several calls from him to retire. However, after the 2007 World Cup, his career had a second wind and his consistency and form returned.

Return to old form and consistency

In the subsequent series against Bangladesh, Tendulkar returned to his opening slot and was Man of the Series. He continued by scoring two consecutive scores of over 90 in the Future Cup against South Africa. He was the leading run scorer and was adjudged the Man of the Series.[126]

Tendulkar celebrates upon reaching his 38th Test century against Australia in the 2nd Test at the SCG in 2008, where he finished not out on 154

On the second day of the Nottingham Test (28 July 2007) Tendulkar became the third cricketer to complete 11,000 Test runs.[127] In the subsequent One day series against England, Tendulkar was the leading run scorer from India[128] with an average of 53.42. In the ODI Series against Australia in October 2007 Tendulkar was the leading Indian run scorer with 278 runs.[129]

Tendulkar was dismissed seven times in 2007 between 90 and 100, including three times at 99, leading some to suggest that he struggles to cope with nerves in this phase of his innings. Tendulkar has got out 27 times in the 90s during his international career.[130] On 8 November 2007 he got out on 99 against Pakistan in an ODI at Mohali to the bowling of Umar Gul. In the fourth ODI, he got out on 97 (off 102 balls with 16 fours) after dragging a delivery from Gul on to his stumps, falling short of another century in ODIs in 2007.

2007/08 tour of Australia

In the Border-Gavaskar Trophy, 2007–08, Tendulkar showed exceptional form, becoming the leading run scorer with 493 runs in four Tests, despite consistently failing in the second innings. Sachin scored 62 runs in the first innings of the first Test at the MCG in Melbourne, but couldn’t prevent a heavy 337-run win for Australia. In the controversial New Years Test at Sydney, Tendulkar scored an unbeaten 154 as India lost the Test. This was his third century at the SCG, earning him an average of 221.33 at the ground. In the third Test at the WACA cricket ground in Perth, Sachin was instrumental in India’s first innings score of 330, scoring a well compiled 71, as India went on to record a historic triumph at the WACA. In the fourth Test at the Adelaide Oval, which ended in a draw, he scored 153 in the first innings, involving in a crucial 126 run stand with V.V.S. Laxman for the fifth wicket to lead India to a score of 282 for 5 from 156 for 4. He secured the Player of the Match award.

In the One-Day International Commonwealth Bank Tri-Series involving Sri Lanka and Australia, Tendulkar became the only batsman to complete 16,000 runs in ODIs. He achieved this feat against Sri Lanka on 5 February 2008 at the Gabba in Brisbane. He started the CB series well notching up scores of 10, 35, 44 and 32, but could not convert the starts into bigger scores. His form dipped a bit in the middle of the tournament, but Tendulkar came back strongly in India’s must-win game against Sri Lanka at the Bellerive Ovalin Hobart, scoring 63 off 54 balls. He finished the series with a match winning 117 not out off 120 balls in the first final,[131] and 91 runs in the second final.[132]

Home series against South Africa

South Africa toured in March and April 2008 for a three-Test series. Tendulkar scored a five-ball duck in his only innings of the series;[133] he sustained a groin strain in the match and as a result was forced not only to miss the second and third Tests, but also the tri-series involving Bangladesh, the 2008 Asia Cup, and the first half of the inaugural season of the IPL.[134]

Sri Lanka Series

Before the touring Sri Lanka for three Test in July 2008, Tendulkar needed just 177 runs to go past Brian Lara’s record of Test 11,953 runs. However, he failed in all six innings, scoring a total of just 95 runs. India lost the series and his average of 15.83 was his worst in a Test series with at least three matches.[135]

Return to form and breaking the record

In the following ODI series against Sri Lanka, Tendulkar was sidelined due to injury. However, during the following Australia tour of India, he returned to fitness and form, scoring 13 and 49 in the first test before making 88 in the first innings of the second test, thus breaking the record for most number of Test runs held by Brian Lara. He also reached the 12,000 run mark when he was on 61. He made a fifty in the third test and 109 in the fourth, as India won the series 2–0 and regained the Border-Gavaskar Trophy.

ODI and Test Series against England

Tendulkar was again out due to injury from the first three ODIs of a 7-match ODI series at home against England, but he made 11 in the fourth ODI and 50 in the fifth, before the ODI series was called off due to the Mumbai terror attacks, the scoreline being 5–0 to India.

England returned for a 2-match test series in December 2008, and in the first test in Chennai, chasing 387 for victory, Tendulkar made 103 not out in a 163-run unbroken fifth wicket stand with Yuvraj Singh. This was his third century in a fourth match innings, and the first which resulted in a win. This was redemption for the Chennai Test of 1999 when chasing 271 against Pakistan, Sachin had made 136 with severe back pain and was out 17 runs short of the target, precipitating a collapse and a loss by 12 runs. He dedicated this century to the victims of the Mumbai terror attacks. Tendulkar failed in both innings in the second test, India won the series 1–0.


In early 2009, India revisited Sri Lanka for five ODIs, as the Pakistan series had been cancelled due to the security situation in Pakistan and the attacks in Mumbai. Tendulkar failed to reach double figures in any inning, before becoming injured.

India’s next assignment was an away series against New Zealand, consisting of three Tests and five ODIs. In the ODI series, Tendulkar made a 163 not out in the third match, an innings ended by stomach cramps that forced him to retire hurt. India made 392 and won easily and won the series 3–1. Tendulkar made 160 in the first test, his 42nd Test century, and India won. He made 49 and 64 in the second test and 62 and 9 in the third, in which India were prevented from winning by rain on the last day. India won the series 1–0.

Tendulkar rested himself for the ODI tour of West Indies, but was back for the Compaq Cup (Tri Series) between India, SL and New Zealand in early September 2009. He made 46 and 27 in the league matches before notching up 138 in the final, as India made 319 and won by 46 runs. This was Tendulkar’s 6th century in ODI finals and his third consecutive score of over 50 in such finals. India has won all six times that Tendulkar has made a hundred in an ODI final.

Tendulkar played just one innings in the ICC Champions trophy in South Africa, scoring 8 against Pakistan as India lost. The next match against Australia was washed out and he was out with food poisoning in the third match against the West Indies, as India were eliminated.

Australia returned for a seven-match ODI series in India in October, and Tendulkar made 14, 4, 32 and 40 in the first four games. In the fifth match, with the series tied at 2–2, Australia amassed 350/4 in 50 overs. Tendulkar made his 45th ODI hundred, a 175 off 141 balls. Just when it seemed that he would steer India to the large victory target, he paddle-scooped debutant bowler Clint McKay straight to short fine leg, with India needing 19 from 18 balls with four wickets left. The Indian tail collapsed, and they lost by 3 runs, being all out for 347. During this match, Tendulkar also became the first player to reach 17,000 ODI runs, and achieved his personal best against Australia, as well as the third highest score in a defeat.

In the ODIs against Sri Lanka in 2009–10, Tendulkar scored 69, 43, 96 not out and 8, as India won 3–1.In the Test Series, he scored a 100 no out in the first test, which was drawn, and 40 in the second and 53 in the third test as India clinched innings victory in both tests. India won the series 2–0.[136]

Sachin rested himself for the ODI tri-series in Bangladesh in 2010. In the Tests against Bangladesh, he made 105 not out and 16 in the first test, and 143 in the second. India won 2–0.

In the 2-Test Series against South Africa, Tendulkar made seven and 100 in the first test and 106 in the first innings of the second test. In the course of the second 100 (his 47th Test Hundred) he achieved several landmarks, in that he had scored four hundreds in his last four matches and that the hundred against South Africa in the first Test was the first at home against South Africa. The century was also his hundredth score over 50 in International Test cricket, moving him to 92 international hundreds (Tests and ODIs combined). In the second match of the subsequent ODI series, Tendulkar scored 200 not out to become the world’s first person to score a double century in ODI cricket.[137]

Tendulkar’s shot to reach 14,000 Test runs. He was batting against Australia in October 2010.

2011 World Cup and after

From February to April, Bangladesh, India, and Sri Lanka hosted the 2011 World Cup. Amassing 482 runs at an average of 53.55 including two centuries, Tendulkar was India’s lead run-scorer for the tournament; only Tillakaratne Dilshan of Sri Lanka scored more runs in the 2011 tournament.[138] India defeated Sri Lanka in the final.[139] Shortly after the victory, Tendulkar commented that “Winning the World Cup is the proudest moment of my life. … I couldn’t control my tears of joy.”[140]

Tendulkar’s results in international matches[141]
Matches Won Lost Drawn Tied No result
Test[142] 200 71 56 72 0
ODI[143] 463 234 200 5 24
T20I[144] 1 1

India were due to tour the West Indies in June, although Tendulkar chose not to participate. He returned to the squad in July for India’s tour of England.[145] Throughout the tour there was much hype in the media about whether Tendulkar would reach his 100th century in international cricket (Test and ODIs combined). However his highest score in the Tests was 91; Tendulkar averaged 34.12 in the series as England won 4–0 as they deposed India as the No. 1 ranked Test side.[146][147] The injury Tendulkar sustained to his right foot in 2001 flared up and as a result he was ruled out of the ODI series that followed.[146] Tendulkar created another record on 8 November 2011 when he became the first cricketer to score 15,000 runs in Test cricket, during the opening Test match against the West Indies at the Feroz Shah Kotla Stadium in New Delhi.[148][149]

Ian Chappell was not happy with Sachin’s performance after India’s tour of Australia. He says that Sachin’s quest for his 100th hundred has proved to be a hurdle for the entire team and has hampered their performance on the Tour of Australia. Former India World Cup winning captain and all-rounder Kapil Dev has also voiced his opinion that Sachin should have retired from ODI’s after the World Cup. Former Australian fast bowler, Geoff Lawson, has said that Sachin has the right to decide when to quit although he adds that Tendulkar should not delay it for too long.[150] The selection committee of BCCI expectedly included Sachin in the national test squad for the upcoming series against New Zealand commencing in August 2012.[151]

100th international century

Tendulkar scored his much awaited 100th international hundred on 16 March 2012, at Mirpur against Bangladesh in the Asia Cup.[152] He became the first person in history to achieve this feat. Incidentally, it was Tendulkar’s first ODI hundred against Bangladesh. He said “It’s been a tough phase for me … I was not thinking about the milestone, the media started all this, wherever I went, the restaurant, room service, everyone was talking about the 100th hundred. Nobody talked about my 99 hundreds. It became mentally tough for me because nobody talked about my 99 hundreds.”[153] Despite Tendulkar’s century, India failed to win the match against Bangladesh, losing by 5 wickets.[154]

Return To Ranji Trophy

After getting out bowled on 3 similar instances against the New Zealand recently and hitting a slump in form, Tendulkar returned to the Ranji Trophy to get back some form ahead of the England Series at home, in a match for Mumbai against Railways on 2 November 2012. All eyes were on Tendulkar, who was playing his first Ranji Trophy match since 2009. And he didn’t disappoint smashing 137 off 136 balls with 21 fours and 3 Sixes, to take his team to 344 for 4 at stumps on day one.[154]

However, because of a poor form in the first two Tests in the series against England, and India being humiliated in the second match of that series by 10 wickets on 26 November 2012,[155] some people have started to question his place in the Indian team. A report by The Hindustan Times said that Tendulkar had a discussion with the national chief selector Sandeep Patil, in which he said that he would leave it to the selectors to decide on his future as he is not getting any runs.[156] This speculation, however, was later considered to be false.[157][158]

Then he decided to play in the knockout stage of the 2012-13 Ranji Trophy. He scored 108 in the quarter final against Baroda before being bowled by Murtuja Vahora, where Sachin was involved in a 234-run partnership with opener Wasim Jaffer (150) for the 3rd wicket at Wankhede Stadium.[159] Mumbai eventually piled on 645/9 and won on 1st innings lead.[160] In the semi final against Services at Palam A Ground, with Mumbai reeling at 23/3, Sachin scored 56 from 75 balls and had a 81-run 4th wicket partnership with Abhishek Nayar (70),[161] and Mumbai eventually won on 1st innings lead after the match went into the sixth day due to rain delays.[162] In the final against Saurashtra, he was run out for 22 following a misunderstanding with Wasim Jaffer.[163] Mumbai eventually won the Ranji Trophy 2012–13.[164]

He also played in the Irani Trophy for Mumbai, where he scored 140* against Rest of India and helped Mumbai to score 409 in reply to Rest of India’s 526. This was also his 81st hundred in first-class cricket, equalling Sunil Gavaskar‘s Indian record for most first-class hundreds.[165][166][167][168]

Indian Premier League and Champions League

Tendulkar’s record in Twenty20 matches[141]
Matches Runs HS 100s 50s Avg.
T20I[169] 1 10 10 0 0 10.00
IPL[170] 78 2334 100* 1 13 34.83
CLT20[171] 13 265 69 0 1 20.38

Tendulkar was made the icon player and captain for his home side, the Mumbai Indians in the inaugural Indian Premier League Twenty20 competition in 2008.[172] As an icon player, he was signed for a sum of US$1,121,250, 15% more than the second-highest paid player in the team, Sanath Jayasuriya.[173]

In 2010 edition of Indian Premier League, Mumbai Indians reached the final of the tournament. Tendulkar made 618 runs in 14 innings during the tournament, breaking Shaun Marsh‘s record of most runs in an IPL season. He was declared player of the tournament for his performance during the season. He also won Best Batsman and Best Captain awards at 2010 IPL Awards ceremony.

Sachin Tendulkar captained Mumbai Indians in 4 league matches of second edition of the league. He scored 68 in the first match and 48 against Guyana. But Mumbai Indians failed to qualify for semifinals after losing the initial two matches. Tendulkar scored 135 runs.[174]

In the 2011 IPL, against Kochi Tuskers Kerala, Tendulkar scored his maiden Twenty20 hundred. He scored 100 not out off 66 balls. In 51 matches in the IPL Tendulkar has scored 1,723 runs, making him the second-highest run-scorer in the competition’s history.[175]

Style of play

Tendulkar plays a wristy leg-side flick

Tendulkar is cross-dominant: He bats, bowls and throws with his right hand, but writes with his left hand.[176] He also practices left-handed throws at the nets on a regular basis. Cricinfo columnist Sambit Bal has described him as the “most wholesome batsman of his time”.[1] His batting is based on complete balance and poise while limiting unnecessary movements and flourishes. He appears to show little preference for the slow and low wickets which are typical in India, and has scored many centuries on the hard, bouncy pitches in South Africa and Australia.[1] He is known for his unique punch style of hitting the ball over square. He is also renowned for his picture-perfect straight drive, often completed with no follow-through. The straight drive is often said to be his favourite shot.[177] In 2008, Sunil Gavaskar, in an article he wrote in the AFP, remarked that “it is hard to imagine any player in the history of the game who combines classical technique with raw aggression like the little champion does”.[178]

Sir Donald Bradman, considered by many as the greatest batsman of all time, considered Tendulkar to have a batting style similar to his. In his biography, it is stated that “Bradman was most taken by Tendulkar’s technique, compactness and shot production, and had asked his wife to have a look at Tendulkar, having felt that Tendulkar played like him. Bradman’s wife, Jessie, agreed that they did appear similar.”[179][180]

Tendulkar at the crease, getting ready to face a delivery

Former Australian cricket team coach John Buchanan voiced his opinion that Tendulkar had become susceptible to the short ball early in his innings because of a lack of footwork.[181] Buchanan also believes Tendulkar has a weakness while playing left-arm pace.[181] He was affected by a series of injuries since 2004. Since then Tendulkar’s batting has tended to be less attacking. Explaining this change in his batting style, he has acknowledged that he is batting differently because, firstly, no batsman can bat the same way for the entire length of a long career and, secondly, he is a senior member of the team now and thus has more responsibility. During the early part of his career, he was a more attacking batsman and frequently scored centuries at close to a run a ball. Ian Chappell, former Australian player, remarked in 2007 that “Tendulkar now, is nothing like the player he was when he was a young bloke”.[182]

Tendulkar has incorporated several modern and unorthodox strokes into his repertoire, including the paddle sweep, the scoop over short fine leg and the slash to third man over the slips’ heads, over the last seven or eight years. This has enabled him to remain scoring consistently in spite of the physical toll of injuries and a lean period in the mid-2000s. By his own admission, he does not bat as aggressively as he did in the 1990s and early 2000s, because his body has undergone changes and cannot sustain aggressive shot-making over a long period. He is often praised for his ability to adapt to the needs of his body and yet keep scoring consistently.

Tendulkar has taken 201 wickets across all three formats of the international game.

While Tendulkar is not a regular bowler, he can bowl medium pace, leg spin, and off spin. He often bowls when two batsmen of the opposite team have been batting together for a long period, as he can often be a useful partnership breaker. With his bowling, he has helped secure an Indian victory on more than one occasion.[183] He has taken 201 international wickets – 46 in Tests, 154 in ODIs where he is India’s tenth highest wicket taker, and one wicket in Twenty20 Internationals.[184]


For more details on 200th and final Test match, see West Indian cricket team in India in 2013–14.

Following poor performance in the 2012 series against England, Tendulkar announced his retirement from One Day Internationals on 23 December 2012, while noting that he will be available for Test cricket.[185][186][187] In response to the news, former India captain Sourav Ganguly noted that Tendulkar could have played the up-coming series against Pakistan, while Anil Kumble said it would be “tough to see an Indian (ODI) team list without Tendulkar’s name in it”, and Javagal Srinath mentioned that Tendulkar “changed the way ODIs were played right from the time he opened in New Zealand in 1994”.[188]

After playing his lone Twenty20 International in 2006 against South Africa, he stated that he would not play T20 Internationals anymore.[189] He announced his retirement from IPL after his team Mumbai Indians beat Chennai Super Kings by 23 runs at the Eden Gardens in Kolkata on 26 May to win the Pepsi Indian Premier League 2013.[24] He retired from Twenty20 cricket and limited-overs cricket, after playing the 2013 Champions League Twenty20 in Sept-Oct 2013 in India for Mumbai Indians.[190]

On 10 October 2013 Tendulkar announced that he would retire from all cricket after the two-Test series against West Indies in November.[191] Later the BCCI confirmed that the two matches will be played at Kolkata and Mumbai, making the farewell happen at his home ground on Tendulkar’s request.[192][193] He scored 74 runs in his last test innings against West Indies.[194] The Cricket Association of Bengal and the Mumbai Cricket Association organized events to mark his retirement from the sport.[195][196] Various national and international figures from cricket, politics, Bollywood and other fields spoke about him in a day-long Salaam Sachin Conclave organized by India Today.[197][198]

Fan following

Sudhir Kumar Chaudhary, a fan of Tendulkar who earned the privilege of tickets to all of India’s home games

Tendulkar’s entry into world cricket was hyped up by former Indian stars and those who had seen him play. Tendulkar’s consistent performances earned him a fan following across the globe, including amongst Australian crowds, where Tendulkar has consistently scored centuries.[94] One of the most popular sayings by his fans is “Cricket is my religion and Sachin is my God”.[199] Cricinfo mentions in his profile that “… Tendulkar remains, by a distance, the most worshipped cricketer in the world.”[200] During the Australian tour of India in 1998 Matthew Hayden said “I have seen God. He bats at no. 4 in India in Tests.”.[201] However, on God, Sachin himself is reported to have said “I am not God of cricket. I make mistakes, God doesn’t”[202] Sachin made a special appearance in the Bollywood film Stumped in 2003, appearing as himself.[203]

There have been many instances when Sachin’s fans have done extreme activities over Sachin’s dismissal in the game. As per reports by many Indian newspapers, a person hanged himself being distressed over Sachin’s failure to reach 100th century.[204] Sudhir Kumar Chaudhary, a fan of Tendulkar from Bihar, has followed almost all the matches played by Sachin since 2003 and has sacrificed his personal life to watch Sachin’s play.[205]

At home in Mumbai, Tendulkar’s fan following has caused him to lead a different lifestyle. Ian Chappell has said that he would be unable to cope with the lifestyle Tendulkar was forced to lead, having to “wear a wig and go out and watch a movie only at night”.[182] In an interview with Tim Sheridan, Tendulkar admitted that he sometimes went for quiet drives in the streets of Mumbai late at night when he would be able to enjoy some peace and silence.[206] Tendulkar has a presence in the popular social networking site Twitter with the user name sachin_rt since May 2010.[207]

Career achievements

An innings-by-innings breakdown of Tendulkar’s Test match batting career up to February 2008, showing runs scored (red bars) and the average of the last ten innings (blue line)

Sachin Tendulkar is the most prolific run scorer in one-day internationals with 18,426 runs. With a current aggregate of 15,470 Test runs, he surpassed Brian Lara‘s previous record tally of 11,953 runs as the highest run scorer in test matches in the second Test of Australia‘s 2008 tour of India in Mohali.[208][209] Tendulkar described “It is definitely the biggest achievement in 19 years of my career” on the day he achieved the record.[210] He also holds the record of highest number of centuries in both Test (51) and ODI (49) cricket. (49). On 16 March 2012, Tenduklar scored his 100th international hundred.[211] It came against Bangladesh in the league matches of Asia Cup 2012. Throughout his career, he has made a strong impact on Indian cricket and was, at one time, the foundation of most of the team’s victories. In recognition with his impact on sport in a cricket-loving country like India, Tendulkar has been granted the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, Arjuna Award, Padma Shri and Padma Vibhushan by the Government of India. He was also chosen as one of the five Wisden Cricketers of the Year in 1997 and is ranked by the Wisden 100 as the second best test batsman and ODI batsman of all time.

Tendulkar has also consistently done well in Cricket World Cups. Tendulkar was the highest run scorer of the 1996 Cricket World Cup and 2003 Cricket World Cup. After his century against England during group stages of 2011 Cricket World Cup, he became the player to hit most number of centuries in Cricket World Cups with six centuries and the first player to score 2000 runs in World Cup cricket.[212][213] Tendulkar has scored over 1000 runs in a calendar year in ODIs 7 times, and in 1998 he scored 1894 runs, easily the record for the highest number of runs scored by any player in a single calendar year for one day internationals. Tendulkar is also one of the very few players who are still playing in international cricket from the 1980s. On 24 February 2010, Tendulkar broke the previous world record for highest individual innings in an ODI, and became the first male cricketer to score a double-century in one-day cricket. He made 200 runs and broke the previous record of 194 runs, jointly held by Pakistan opener Saeed Anwar and Zimbabwe’s Charles Coventry.[214]

He has been Man of the Match 13 times in Test matches and Man of the Series four times,[215] out of them twice in the Border-Gavaskar Trophy against Australia. The performances earned him respect from Australian cricket fans and players.[94] Similarly he has been Man of the Match 60 times in One day International matches and Man of the Series 14 times.He is the leading run-scorer and century maker in Test and one-day international cricket.[216][217][218] He is the first player to score a double century in Men’s ODI cricket.[219][220] He also holds the world record for playing highest number of Test and ODI matches. Tendulkar is the only cricketer to accomplish the feat of scoring a hundred centuries in international cricket which includes 49 ODI and 51 Test centuries.[221] He is also the only player to score fifty centuries in Test cricket,[222] and the first to score fifty centuries in all international cricket combined. On 17 October 2008, when he surpassed Brian Lara‘s record for the most runs scored in Test cricket, he also became the first batsman to score 12,000, 13,000, 14,000 and 15,000 runs in that form of the game,[208] having also been the third batsman and first Indian to pass 11,000 runs in Test cricket.[223] He was also the first player to score 10,000 runs in one-day internationals, and also the first player to cross every subsequent 1000-run mark that has been crossed in ODI cricket history. In the fourth Test of the Border-Gavaskar Trophy against Australia, Tendulkar surpassed Australia’s Allan Border to become the player to cross the 50-run mark the most number of times in Test cricket history, and also the second ever player to score 11 Test centuries against Australia, tying with Sir Jack Hobbs of England more than 70 years previously.[224] On 24 February 2010, Tendulkar became the first man to score a double century (200*) in an ODI against South Africa. On 8 November 2011, Tendulkar became the first batsman to score 15,000 runs in Test Cricket.

Tendulkar’s Wax Statue in Madame Tussauds, London

Centuries against different nations
Test ODI
 Australia 11 9
 Sri Lanka 9 8
 South Africa 7 5
 England 7 2
 New Zealand 4 5
 West Indies 3 4
 Zimbabwe 3 5
 Pakistan 2 5
 Bangladesh 5 1
 Kenya 4
 Namibia 1

National honours

Other honours


Mike Denness incident

In India’s 2001 tour of South Africa in the second test match between India and South Africa at St George’s Park, Port Elizabeth match referee Mike Denness fined four Indian players for excessive appealing as well as the Indian captain Sourav Ganguly for not controlling his team.[241] Tendulkar was given a suspended ban of one game by Mike Denness in light of alleged ball tampering. Television cameras picked up images that suggested Tendulkar may have been involved in cleaning the seam of the cricket ball.[242] This can, under some conditions, amount to altering the condition of the ball. The match referee Mike Denness found Sachin Tendulkar guilty of ball tampering charges and handed him a one Test match ban.[243] The incident escalated to include allegations of racism,[244] and led to Mike Denness being barred from entering the venue of the third test match. The ICC revoked the status of the match as a Test as the teams rejected the appointed referee.[245] The charges against Tendulkar and Sehwag’s ban for excessive appealing triggered a massive backlash from the Indian public.[246]

Ferrari import tax

In commemorating Tendulkar’s feat of equalling Don Bradman‘s 29 centuries in Test Cricket, automotive giant Ferrari invited Tendulkar to its paddock in Silverstone on the eve of the British Grand Prix on 23 July 2002, to receive a Ferrari 360 Modena from the F1 world champion Michael Schumacher.[247] On 4 September 2002 India’s then finance minister Jaswant Singh wrote to Tendulkar telling him that the government will waive customs duty imposed on the car as a measure to applaud his feat.[248] However the rules at the time stated that the customs duty can be waived only when receiving an automobile as a prize and not as a gift. It is claimed that the proposals to change the law (Customs Act) was put forth in Financial Bill in February 2003 and amended was passed as a law in May 2003. Subsequently the Ferrari was allowed to be brought to India without payment of the customs duty (INR1.13 crore (US$170,000) or 120% on the car value of INR.75 crore (US$110,000)).[249] When the move to waive customs duty became public in July 2003, political and social activists protested the waiver[250] and filed a PIL in the Delhi High Court. With the controversy snowballing, Fiat India agreed to pay the import duty.[251]

Other works

Business interests

Tendulkar’s immense popularity has led him to be an early pioneer in India on cricket business dealings when he signed a record sports management deal with WorldTel in 1995, the value of the deal being INR30 crore (US$4.6 million) over five years.[252] His next contract with WorldTel in 2001 was valued at INR80 crore (US$12 million) over five years.[253] In 2006, he signed a contract with Saatchi and Saatchi‘s ICONIX valued at INR180 crore (US$28 million) over three years.[254]

Tendulkar has opened two restaurants: Tendulkar’s[255] (Colaba, Mumbai) and Sachin’s[256] (Mulund, Mumbai) and Bangalore. Sachin owns these restaurants in partnership with Sanjay Narang of Mars Restaurants.

In 2007, Tendulkar also announced a JV with the Future Group and Manipal Group to launch healthcare and sports fitness products under the brand name ‘S Drive and Sach’.[257] A series of comic books by Virgin Comics is also due to be published featuring him as a superhero.[258]

Commercial endorsements

Sachin Tendulkar has been sponsored by several brands throughout his career including Boost (1990–present),[259] Pepsi (1992–2009),[260] Action Shoes (1995–2000),[261] MRF (1999–2009),[262] Adidas (2000–10), Britannia (2001–07),[263] Fiat Palio (2001–03),[264] TVS (2002–05),[265] ESPN Star Sports (2002–present),[266] Sunfeast (2007–13),[267] Canon (2006–09),[268] Airtel (2004–06),[269] Reynolds (2007–present),[270] G-Hanz (2005–07),[271] Sanyo BPL (2007–present),[272] Toshiba (2010–present),[273] Colgate-Palmolive,[274] Philips,[274] VISA,[274] Castrol India (2011–12),[275] Ujala Techno Bright,[276] Coca-Cola (2011–13)[277] and Musafir.com (2013–present).[278]

He has also been a spokesperson for National Egg Coordination Committee (2003–05),[279] AIDS Awareness Campaign (2005)[280] and Luminous India (2010–present)[281]


In April 2012, Tendulkar accepted the Rajya Sabha nomination proposed by the then president Pratibha Patil and became the first active sportsperson and cricketer to have been nominated.[282] Former cricketers Sanjay Manjrekar,[283] Ajit Wadekar,[284] Madan Lal[284] expressed their surprise over this move. Politician Sanjay Raut[284] and anti-corruption campaigner Baba Ramdev called this as Indian National Congress‘s way of diverting media attention which was then talking of scams by the government.[285]

On 2 May, Tendulkar was elected to seat number 103 in the Rajya Sabha[286] and took the oath on 4 June.[287] He refused to take the bunglow alloted to him in New Delhi calling it “waste of tax payer’s money” as he reside in Mumbai.[288]


Tendulkar sponsors 200 underprivileged children every year through Apnalaya, a Mumbai-based NGO associated with his mother-in-law, Annabel Mehta.[289][290] A request from Sachin on Twitter raised INR1.025 crore (US$160,000) through Sachin’s crusade against cancer for the Crusade against Cancer foundation.[291][292] Sachin Tendulkar spent nine hours on the 12-hour Coca-Cola-NDTV Support My School telethon on 18 September 2011 that helped raise INR 7 crore – INR 2 crore more than the target – for from the creation of basic facilities, particularly toilets for girl students, in 140 government schools across the country.[293]


Sachin Tendulkar has been the subject of various books. The following is the listing of books focused on Tendulkar’s career:

See also


  1. Jump up ^ He scored 583 runs at an average of 67.77, and was the sixth highest run-scorer overall
  2. Jump up ^ (Craig White, although born in Yorkshire was the first player to be signed as an overseas player by Yorkshire. He had to be listed as an overseas player as he had already played for Victoria in Australia).
  3. Jump up ^ He hit him for 6,4,0,6,6,6


  1. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Bal, Sambit. “Sachin Tendulkar—Cricinfo Profile”. Cricinfo. Retrieved 14 December 2007.
  2. Jump up ^ Boria Majumdar (19 October 2013). “Sachin’s the greatest batsman of modern era: Clarke.” The Times of India.
  3. Jump up ^ Alex Brown (11 October 2013). “Cricket’s greatest batsmen: Sachin Tendulkar v Don Bradman.” News.com.au
  4. Jump up ^ Shiva Jayaraman (10 October 2013). “34,273 runs and counting | Sachin Tendulkar’s career in numbers”. Cricinfo. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
  5. Jump up ^ NDTV Correspondent (5 December 2012). “Sachin Tendulkar completes 34000 runs in international cricket | India vs England 2012 – News | NDTVSports.com”. Sports.ndtv.com. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  6. Jump up ^ “Sachin’s poor run continues. Should the Master Blaster call it a day? : SPORT – India Today”. Indiatoday.intoday.in. 7 December 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  7. Jump up ^ Firstpost. “Sachin Tendulkar completes 34000 international career runs! – Sachin Tendulkar Videos : Firstpost Topic – Page 1”. Firstpost.com. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  8. Jump up ^ “Records / Combined First-class, List A and Twenty20 / Batting records ; Most runs in career”. Stats.espncricinfo.com. 27 September 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
  9. Jump up ^ “CLT20: Sachin Tendulkar first Indian to reach 50,000 runs in all formats”. 5 October 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
  10. Jump up ^ PTI Oct 5, 2013, 10.44PM IST (2013-10-05). “Sachin Tendulkar reaches 50,000-run landmark across all formats – Times Of India”. Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
  11. Jump up ^ “Tendulkar second-best ever: Wisden”. Rediff.com. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
  12. Jump up ^ “Reliving a dream”. The Hindu. 6 April 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
  13. Jump up ^ “Don Bradman, Shane Warne in Wisden’s XI”. theaustralian.com. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  14. Jump up ^ “WG Grace and Shane Warne in Wisden all-time World Test XI”. BBC.co.uk. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  15. Jump up ^ “Sachin Tendulkar in Wisden’s All-time World Test XI”. NDTV. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  16. Jump up ^ “Sachin Tendulkar named in Wisden all-time World Test XI”. DNA India. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  17. Jump up ^ “Sachin Tendulkar named cricketer of the year”. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
  18. Jump up ^ “Rajya Sabha stint”. Hindustan Times. 4 June 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
  19. Jump up ^ “Tendulkar receives Order of Australia membership”. Wisden India. 6 November 2012.
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  234. Jump up ^ Sachin, Mohinder Bag Top Honors at Castrol Awards for Cricketing Excellence. Castrol India. 28 January 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2011
  235. Jump up ^ “Wisden India Outstanding Achievement award for Tendulkar”. Wisden India. 11 June 2012.
  236. Jump up ^ “Sachin Tendulkar presented with Honorary SCG Membership”. sydneycricketground.com.au. 26 February 2012.
  237. Jump up ^ “Sachin Tendulkar gets honorary life membership of SCG”. indianexpress.com. 24 December 2012.
  238. Jump up ^ “Australia toughened up Sachin”. The Australian. 8 November 2012.
  239. Jump up ^ “Sachin Tendulkar receives Order of Australia”. Zee News. 7 November 2012.
  240. Jump up ^ “Sachin’s stamp released; MCA removes Kohli’s hoardings from Wankhede”. The Hindu. 16 November 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  241. Jump up ^ “ICC Match Referee confirms disciplinary action for Indian cricketers”. Cricinfo. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
  242. Jump up ^ “Tendulkar appears before match referee”. Cricinfo. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
  243. Jump up ^ “Tendulkar handed suspended ban”. Cricinfo. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
  244. Jump up ^ “Indian media fury over Tendulkar”. London: BBC News. 21 November 2001. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
  245. Jump up ^ “ICC sets out latest position regarding South Africa v India”. Cricinfo. 23 November 2001. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
  246. Jump up ^ “Indians cry foul”. London: BBC News. 20 November 2001. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
  247. Jump up ^ “When Sachin met Schumacher”. Rediff. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
  248. Jump up ^ “Indian government amended law for Sachin’s Ferrari”. Cricinfo. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
  249. Jump up ^ “Tendulkar gets his Ferrari at last”. Rediff. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
  250. Jump up ^ “Duty waiver for Tendulkar draws flak”. Cricinfo. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
  251. Jump up ^ “Fiat agrees to pay duty on Sachin’s Ferrari”. Cricinfo. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
  252. Jump up ^ “A Brand Name called Sachin Tendulkar”. The Times of India (India). 7 August 2002. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  253. Jump up ^ “$17 mn deal for Sachin”. Rediff. 16 May 2001. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  254. Jump up ^ “Tendulkar signs $40-million contract”. Mail & Guardian Online. 4 May 2006. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  255. Jump up ^ “Sachin opens restaurant, plans chains”. Rediff. 19 July 2002. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  256. Jump up ^ “Tendulkar expanding restaurant business”. The Economic Times. 17 October 2004. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  257. Jump up ^ “Sachin Tendulkar becomes stakeholder in a joint venture”. The Indian Express. India. 7 February 2007. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  258. Jump up ^ “Sachin Tendulkar becomes stakeholder in a joint venture”. London: BBC. 7 February 2007. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  259. Jump up ^ Prabhakar, Binoy (1 April 2012). “No new endorsement after century of centuries; is Sachin Tendulkar’s brand aura on the wane?”. The Economic Times. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  260. Jump up ^ “Pepsi celebrates Sachin at 29”. The Hindu Business Line. 25 April 2002. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  261. Jump up ^ “The Don and the New Master”. India Today. 7 September 1998. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  262. Jump up ^ “Tendulkar Closes MRF Innings after Decade at Crease”

    . 18 September 2009.

  263. Jump up ^ “Sachin to bat for Britannia”. The Financial Express. 2 November 2001. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  264. Jump up ^ Chatterjee, Dev (30 August 2003). “Sachin’s Fiat tie-up may end soon”. The Indian Express. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  265. Jump up ^ “TVS signs Sachin as brand ambassador”. The Hindu Business Line. 16 February 2002. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  266. Jump up ^ “Sachin to bat for ESPN-Star Sports”. The Indian Express. India. 7 February 2007. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  267. Jump up ^ “ITC signs Sachin Tendulkar as co-creator”. The Economic Times. 14 November 2006. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  268. Jump up ^ “Canon clicks Sachin as brand ambassador”. The Hindu Business Line. 7 November 2006. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  269. Jump up ^ “Airtel drops Tendulkar as brand ambassador”. The Indian Express. India. 3 November 2006. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  270. Jump up ^ “Clark and Reynolds extend contracts”

    . Sport Gnome. 12 January 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2012.

  271. Jump up ^ “G-Hanz unveils ‘safe’ mobiles”. The Indian Express. India. 24 January 2007. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  272. Jump up ^ Badrinath, Raghuvir (4 January 2006). “Sachin to bat for Sanyo-BPL”. Business Standard. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  273. Jump up ^ “Sachin Tendulkar is the new face of Toshiba”. Business Standard. 1 July 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
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  275. Jump up ^ “Sachin to Bat for Castrol”. Castrol India. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
  276. Jump up ^ “Ujala Techno Bright”. Jyothy Laboratories. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
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  278. Jump up ^ Our Bureau. “Musafir.com to invest Rs 100 crore in India | Business Line”. Thehindubusinessline.com. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
  279. Jump up ^ “Hatching a new game plan”. The Hindu Business Line. 2 December 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  280. Jump up ^ “Sachin & BCCI to spread AIDS Awareness message”. Thatscricket. 22 March 2005. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  281. Jump up ^ “Luminous Signs the legend Sachin Tendulkar as Brand Ambassador”. Technics Today. 3 May 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  282. Jump up ^ “Sachin Tendulkar accepts Congress’s Rajya Sabha nomination offer: reports”. India: CNN-IBN. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  283. Jump up ^ Tagore, Vijay (28 April 2012). “Sachin Tendulkar in Parliament: House that?”. DNA India. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
  284. ^ Jump up to: a b c “Not everyone game for Sachin in Rajya Sabha”. Hindustan Times (New Delhi). 28 April 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
  285. Jump up ^ “Sachin ‘pressured’ by Congress: Yoga Guru”. Hindustan Times (New Delhi). 28 April 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
  286. Jump up ^ ANI (28 April 2012). “Mixed reactions to Tendulkar’s RS nominationAV-News Videos”. Hindustan Times. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
  287. Jump up ^ “Sachin Tendulkar sworn in as Rajya Sabha MP”. The Times of India. 4 June 2012.
  288. Jump up ^ “Sachin Tendulkar turns down government quarter”. DNA Media, Mumbai. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
  289. Jump up ^ “Sachin sponsors 200 children”. thatscricket.com. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  290. Jump up ^ “Sachin sponsors 200 children of apnalaya”. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  291. Jump up ^ “Sachin Tendulkar raises Rs 10 Million for Cancer Charity”. Breakingnewsonline.net. 29 May 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  292. Jump up ^ “Sachin’s social responsibility – Behindindia.com – General News – Sachin Tendulkar Apnalaya”. behindindia.com. Retrieved 3 August 2009.
  293. Jump up ^ “Humble Sachin Tendulkar helps telethon raise Rs 7 crore for schools – Sport – DNA”. Dnaindia.com. 19 September 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  294. Jump up ^ Book: Sachin: The Story of the World’s Greatest Batsman. ASIN 0143028545.
  295. Jump up ^ “One Sachin Tendulkar Opus to cost $350,000 : Cricket, News – India Today”. Indiatoday.intoday.in. 5 December 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  296. Jump up ^ “Man of letters”. Cricinfo. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
  297. Jump up ^ “Willow talk”. The Telegraph (Kolkota, India). 12 March 2005. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
  298. Jump up ^ “Sachin Tendulkar – Masterful”. Cricinfo. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
  299. Jump up ^ Book: If Cricket is a Religion, Sachin is God. ASIN 8172238215.
  300. Jump up ^ “Book: Master Stroke: 100 Centuries of Sachin Tendulkar”. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
  301. Jump up ^ “The Indian Express”. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
  302. Jump up ^ “Sachin ke sau shatak”

    . Retrieved 2013-09-12T15:10:00Z.

  303. Jump up ^ Murray, Peter; Shukla, Ashish (2002). Sachin Tendulkar: Masterful. Murray Advertising. ISBN 81-7167-806-8.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sachin Tendulkar.
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Sachin Tendulkar

Sachin Tendulkar is Awarded Bharath Rathna

Sachin Tendulkar

The First Sportsman who is awarded Bharath Rathna

Sachin Tendulkar 1

Good News Retreat Center, Pambady, Kottayam

About Good News Retreat Center

Good News Retreat Center at Kottayam,Pambady is set in a beautiful countryside of Kerala,India formed in 1998 and directed by Fr. Joseph Kandathiparamabil, a spirit filled vibrant priest of Herald of Good News congregation. This retreat center helps thousands of people every day to experience the love, healing and touch of Jesus Christ through spirit filled worship, prayers, talks and music.

Contact Good News Retreat Center

Good News Retreat Center

8th Mile, Velloor PO

Pambady, Kottayam

Kerala , 686 501

Email: contact@goodnewstapas.org

Fr. Joseph Kandathiparampil HGN

 PictureFr. Joseph Kandathiparampil HGN is now leading the Good News Retreat Center. Fr. Joseph is committed to spread the ‘Good News’ all over the world, and his Tapas (fasting) retreats are bestowing  tremendous changes in lives of people around the globe.

Read more about Fr. Joseph : Maranathil Ninnu Thapasinte Vazhikallil

Contact : cell 267 423 5552 (USA) | +91 944 765 4231 ( India)  + 44 75 35 86 76 88 ( UK)

Email: frjosephkandathiparambil@gmail.com

Retreat Schedule of Good News Retreat Center

One Day Retreat : Every Friday 9 am to 3 Pm
Intercession Prayer : Every Day , Every Hour
Tapas ( Fasting) Retreat: Every first Friday 9:30 am to Monday 9:30 am
Weekend Retreat : Thursday after First Friday 5pm to Sunday 3pm
Inner Healing : Every Sunday after fasting retreat 5:30 pm to Thursday 3pm
Marian Love Retreat: Every first Sunday 5pm to Thursday 4pm
Healing / Sanctification Prayer: Sunday after Inner healing retreat starts 5:00 pm to Thursday 4pm.
Holy Spirit Retreat – Last Sunday 5:00  pm to Thursday 4:00 pm
Night Vigil –  Last Friday of every month 7:00 pm starts with Holy Mass till       6:00am next day ends with Holy Mass

Click here for Retreat Registration

Click here for the Official Website of Good News Retreat Center

Teachers’ Day Message

To my beloved Teachers!

If I could take my heart out and prepare few little flowers;
I could submit them at the feet of my beloved Teachers!
Teachers are the makers of what I am today in this world ;
And i am indebted to them forever I am here or elsewhere!

Nation is indebted to teachers more than every others;
Others play different roles but teachers the definite one!
Teachers form character of the nation vibrant everytime;
Thriving to achieve and driving to excel so passionatly!

My salute to all the teachers of India at all the times;
You.are the makers of a passionate nation full of emotion!
Nation is our first priority with global citizenship in hand;
We are willing to die for the nation abundant in tradition!

All because of our teachers who are dedicated and devout;
Smiling are their faces and consoling their expressions!
We may forget to eat and drink but not our teachers ever;
Teachers are our strength to take the nation to the heights

jesus the teacher

Jesus the teacher

MCBS Cristone Media: Arts and Communication School – Approved International Exam Center for ABRSM

Director: Fr Xavier Kunnumpuram MCBS

Mob. 09447471748

About Cristone

Cristone Media, initiated and founded as a socio-cultural development centre of MCBS Congregation by Fr. Xavier Kunnumpuram mcbs in 2011, furnishes a harmonious blend of spiritual and cultural education, so as to facilitate the integral development of every individual through perfect training to envisage, produce and promote audio-visual communication media, benefiting people of all categories. The prime commitment is that quality education be imparted via the expertise of our well-experienced faculties in various subjects, equipping and preparing every student with the ability to discover the fathom of himself. The association of the Institution with the Royal School of Music, London proves to be a boon, by way of which, the institution is sure to find greater heights. Cristone Media establishes itself, among the many, to be one of the best learning and research centres in audio-visual communication and arts in South India.


Near Pushpagiri Church

Cheruvallil Building

Thellakom P.O.

Kottayam, Kerala

Ph.0481 2790661

Mobile +91 9446194671, +91 9447471748


Email: mcbscristone@gmail.com

Click here for the Official Website Cristone Media

Click here for the Official Blog of Cristone Media

Click here for the Official Website of Mariyan Creations

Chittoor Retreat Centre, Ernakulam

Chittoor Dhyana Kendram, Ernakulam

Chittoor Retreat Centre started in the 90’s as a laymen effort in the  Charismatic Movement of  Kerala. An Intercessionary prayer group Which assembles once a month put in  the money to buy a piece of land in Chittoor, the First liquour free village in Kerala. There in a small thatched shed a prayer service started. It was all in consultation with Rev.Fr. Mathew Naikamparambil V.C. Mostly the lay preachers of Divine Retreat Centre  held the talk and Br.K.J Joseph conducted the programmes on Saturdays. Br.P.P. George and Mrs.Gracy George were always there managing the whole thing as the President and Treasurer of the registered Society.

Soon   the attendance for the Saturday prayers increased manifold. The 11,000Sq.Ft. Hall was ready and got inagurated by Mr.Babu Paul I.A.S. , the Cultural Secretary. By the time the Society realized that the Centre is growing beyond their capacity and The Arch-Diocese of Enakulam Graciously took over and nurtured it to grow under its priestly care. From then it has developed into a self sustaining institution, capable of accomodating upto a thousand people who seek divine solace by attending its famous five days Inner Healing Retreat and Friday’s Fasting Prayer.


Chittoor Retreat Centre
Snehasusrushalayam , South Chittoor
Ernakulam- 682027, Kerala, India
Tel. Ph: +91 484 2430508, 2432508
Email : mail@chittoordyanakendram.com

Click here for Official Website

Commission for Evangelization and Pastoral Care of the Migrants

Commission for Migrants

The Major Archiepiscopal Commission for

Evangelization the Pastoral Care of the Migrants

The Major Archiepiscopal Commission for Evangelization and Pastoral Care of the Migrants is constituted to assist the Major Archbishop of the Church in carrying out his responsibilities towards the Syro-Malabar migrant faithful out side the proper territory of the Syro Malabar Church (in India and aboard) and to animate and co-ordinate the evangelizing mission of the Church.


The Catholic Church is a communion of twenty three sui iuris Churches with different liturgy, theology, spirituality and administrative system. The Syro- Malabar Church is the second largest in number among twenty two Eastern Churches with a total population of 3.8 million faithful. It is a Major Archiepiscopal sui iuris Church with a Synodal structure. The Synod is the supreme legislative and judicial authority in the Church. The Major Archbishop is the father and head of this Church (CCEO, 55). As the father and head of the Church, the Major Archbishop must be solicitous not only for the faithful of his Church in the proper territory, but also for the migrants scattered all over the world. He enjoys certain rights and duties towards the faithful who belong to his Church no matter wherever they stay (CCEO.148§ 2). He exercises his pastoral authority in the Church with the help of various Commissions because canon 124 of the CCEO prescribes that there should be various Commissions to take care of the different fields of activities in the sui iuris Church. The Commissions are erected by the Major Archbishop, constituted of persons chosen by him and are governed by norms established by him (Synodal News, No. 1, August 1993, p. 47).

In the very first meeting of the Synod of Bishops of the Syro-Malabar Church, held from 20 to 25 May 1993 at the residence of Mar Antony Padiyara, the then Major Archbishop, at Ernakulam under the chairmanship of Archbishop Abraham Kattumana, the Pontifical Delegate to the Syro-Malabar Church, decision was taken to constitute the Major Archiepiscopal Commission for the Evangelization and Pastoral Care of the Migrants. This Commission was constituted to assist the Major Archbishop of the Church in carrying out his responsibilities towards the Syro-Malabar migrant faithful outside the proper territory of the Syro Malabar Church in India and aboard and to animate and co-ordinate the evangelizing mission of the Church. The same Synod elected Bishop Mar Gregory Karotemprel CMI as the Chairman and Bishops Mar Joseph Pallikaparampil (Pala) and Mar Paul Chittilapilly (Kalyan) as members of the Commission. (Synodal News, No. 1, August 1993, pp 6-7, Synodal News, No. 6, May 1995, p. 41).

While the VI Synod of Bishops of the Syro-Malabar Church was in session from 12th to 24th January 1998, Mar Varkey Vithayathil C.Ss.R., the Apostolic Administrator of the Syro-Malabar Church reconstituted the Commission for the Evangelization and Pastoral Care of the Migrants with Bishop Mar Gregory Karotemprel CMI as the Chairman and Bishops Mar Joseph Pallikaparampil and Mar Gratian Mundadan CMI as members. The Commission members took charge on 21 May 1998 (Synodal News, No. 11, March 1998, p.15).

The VII Synod of Bishops, held at Mount St Thomas from 14 to 20 November 1999, took the decision to establish a Mission Secretariat under the auspices of the Major Archiepiscopal Commission for Evangelization and Pastoral Care of the Migrants at the Major Archiepiscopal Curia, Mount St Thomas. Mar Varkey Vithayathil, the then Apostolic Administrator, canonically erected the Mission Secretariat at Mount St Thomas vide Decree No. 1871/99 on 17th December 1999. (Synodal News, Vol. 7, Nos. 1& 2, December 1999, pp 56, 70, 124)

In the course of the XI Synod of Bishops held at Mount St. Thomas from 3 to15 November 2003, Mar Varkey Cardinal Vithayathil, the Major Archbishop reconstituted the Commission for the Evangelization and Pastoral Care of the Migrants with Bishop Gregory Karotemprel CMI again as the Chairman and Bishops Mar Vijay Anand Nedumpuram CMI and Mar Mathew Vaniakizhakkel VC as members (Synodal News, Vol.11, No.2, December 2003, p. 30).

During the XVI synod, on 27th August 2008, Mar Varkey Cardinal Vithayathil, the Major Archbishop reconstituted the Commission for the Evangelization and Pastoral Care of the Migrants with Bishop Sebastian Vadakel MST as the Chairman and Bishops Simon Stock Palathara CMI and Mar Antony Chirayath as members (Synodal News, Vol.12, Nos.1&2, Novembers 2008, p. 47).


The love of Christ towards migrants urges us (cf. 2Cor. 5:14) to look afresh at their problems and to respond more efficiently to the pastoral needs of the Syro-Malabar faithful living outside the territorium proprium of the church in India and abroad and the zeal for Christ obliges us to be His witnesses in the whole world sharing the light of Faith lit by St Thomas the Apostle. Mission


Pastoral care of the emigrants of the Syro-Malabar Church has always been the priority of the Commission. Some of the members of the Commission in the past were appointed Apostolic Visitors of the USA and Canada as well as the European countries. They presented reports of their visitations to the Synod as well as to Rome. The Commission arranged several meetings and deliberations with the Latin prelates of the migrant areas and sent various memoranda to Rome as well as to other ecclesiastical authorities. As a result of these efforts, St Thomas Syro-Malabar Diocese of Chicago was erected for the Syro-Malabar migrants in USA and Canada, chaplains were appointed for the pastoral care of the Syro-Malabar migrants by the Latin prelates in many places and several Syro-Malabar parishes were established in Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai and Kolkata. Commission ensures regular correspondence with the emigrant communities

The Commission was entrusted with the task of arranging the conduct of the first Syro Malabar Mission Assembly. Accordingly a preliminary meeting was held in November 1998 at Poornodaya in Bhopal with delegates from all dioceses, especially from mission dioceses for drafting the first Working Paper (Lineamenta). The Mission Assembly was held from November 12 14, 1999 at Mount St Thomas. As per the direction of the Synod, held from November 14 20, 1999, the Commission convened a Meeting of the Bishops of the Dioceses of the Syro Malabar Church outside the Territorium Proprium and the major Superiors of the Syro Malabar Religious Congregations and Institutes of Apostolic Life, working in the above Dioceses at Poornodaya in Bhopal from 13 to 15 October, 2000.

An all-inclusive Syro-Malabar Catholic Directory was published by the Commission for the first time in November 2004. The Commission joyfully undertook the preparation of a Mission Policy of the Syro-Malabar Church in the challenging circumstances of the Mission of the Church in the third millennium. After several years of study, consultation, discussion and preparation it was finally promulgated on March 19, 2006. It was simultaneously translated into Malayalam as well. The Commission conducted the first ever Global Meet of the Syro-Malabar emigrants at Mount St Thomas, the Major Archiepiscopal Curia from 18 to 21 of August 2006 after a year long preparation. Almost 380 participants from all over the world participated in the Meet and of them some 100 were from outside India and others from various cities and Syro-Malabar dioceses in India. The Commission brought out a Directory of the Syro-Malabar Migrants, with a brief history, general statistics, contact details and other relevant pieces of information of every sizeable Syro-Malabar migrant community in India and outside. The Commission also published two issues of the Mission India. Around the time of Christmas in 2006 Syro-Malabar Global Mission was published for the emigrants of the Syro-Malabar Church as per the suggestions of the Global Meet 2006. Together with Sathyadeepam the Commission (CEPCM) brought out a Mission Supplement as a special issue in order to introduce the Syro-Malabar Mission Dioceses to the Mother Church in Kerala. The Supplement contained articles and pictures on all the Mission dioceses of the Syro-Malabar Church and it was a landmark achievement for the Commission. A study seminar on the Mission Policy of the Syro-Malabar Church under the title Mission Congress 2007 is being planned out by the Commission. The Commission intends to publish a shorter version of the Directory of the Syro-Malabar Church in 2008.

Church Teachings on Pastoral Care of the Migrants

            The history of humankind is a history of migration. Migrations are on the increase day by day for reasons of better livelihood, or for other demands of life like jobs, strenuous conditions in one’s own country, religious persecution and so on. It is a matter of serious concern for all nations and people. There are many advantages along with it, like good job opportunities, peaceful life, higher salaries, wide range of living standards and so on. But it is a fact that migrants who have had to give up their homeland, their possessions and relations inevitably carry with them the characteristics and memories of their own people as an indelible identity which cannot be renounced or denied. Experience has shown that the inability of expression in other than the mother language and loss of cultural and spiritual patrimonies not only damage the conscience but also cancel religious convictions and practices. As far as the Church is concerned, migration has a great missionary dimension. Pope Paul VI in Evangelii Nuntiandi notes: “It is the result of their living presence and witness in the midst of new people that forms new Churches. So they are the real seeds and the evangelizers” (n.21).

Migration always involves uprooting, detachment from one’s people, culture and place. At the same time it is for insertion and integration into a new society and place. In the Old Testament God brought the Israelites to the promised land to make them a chosen race and wanted them to keep up their identity in the new land. God did not want the Israelites to be scattered but united as the people of God. As Yahweh cared for the Israelites, the migrants need special pastoral care from the part of the Church lest they be disoriented in the new situation. St. Paul says: “Welcome one another, therefore, just as Christ has welcomed you, for the glory of God” (Rom.15:7).

Proper pastoral care of the migrants is a great mission entrusted to the Church. Erga migrantes caritas Christi, an instruction issued in 2004 by the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People notes: “Welcoming the stranger is intrinsic to the nature of the Church itself and bears witness to its fidelity to the Gospel” (n. 22).The mission of the Church towards migrants calls for an integrated approach of the proclamation of the gospel, clear policy and programs of pastoral works, catechetical and liturgical formation, fostering dialogue with them, working for their human rights, dignity, etc.

There is no dearth of Magisterial material safeguarding the right of pastoral care of the migrants. Popes, Councils and Encyclicals recommend the retention and promotion of the rights of the migrants. None of the Vatican documents encourage absorption or integration of the immigrants into the Church of arrival. The teachings of the Church with regard to the pastoral care of the migrant faithful of any sui juris Church, anywhere in the world, are crystal clear from the following Church documents.

Teachings of the Councils

Lateran Council IV 

“Since in many places people of different languages live within the same city or diocese, having one faith but different rites and customs, we therefore strictly order bishops of such cities and dioceses to provide suitable men who will do the following in the various rites and languages: celebrate the divine services for them, administer the Church’s sacraments, and instruct them by word and examples” Lateran Council IV (1215), can. 9, Counciliarurn Eccumenicourum … Rome.1962, p. 215.

Second Vatican Council

ccFor the Catholic Church wishes the traditions of each particular church or rite to remain whole and entire, and it likewise wishes to adapt its own way of life to the needs of different times and places” (OE. 2).

ccTherefore these churches are of equal rank, so that none of them is superior to the others because of its rite. They have the same rights and obligations, even with regard to the preaching of the Gospel in the whole world (cf. Mk16:15), under the direction of the Roman Pontiff” (OE. 3)

ccProvision must be made therefore everywhere in the world to protect and advance all these individual Churches. For this purpose, each should organize its own parishes and hierarchy, where the spiritual good of the faithful requires it…each and every Catholic, as also the baptized members of any non-Catholic church or community who come to the fullness of the Catholic communion, must retain each his own rite wherever he is, and follow it to the best of his ability” (OE. 4)

ccIt likewise pertains to Episcopal conferences to found and promote agencies which will fraternally receive those who immigrate from missionary territories for of work or study, and which will aid them by suitable pastoral attention” (AG.38).

ccThis Synod solemnly declares that the Churches of the East, while keeping in mind the necessary unity of the whole Church, have the power to govern themselves according to their own disciplines, since these are better suited to the character of their faithful and better adapted to foster the good of souls. The perfect observance of this traditional principle-which indeed has not always been observed-is a prerequisite for any restoration of union” (UR. 16).

ccWhere there are faithful of a different rite, the diocesan bishop should provide for their spiritual needs either through priests or parishes of that rite or through an Episcopal Vicar endowed with the necessary faculties. Wherever it is fitting, the last named should also have an Episcopal rank” CD. 23) Teachings of Popes “Pope Pius XII says that “for Oriental Churches there should not be any compulsion to substitute their customs with those of the Latin Church and every Rite must have equal estimation and dignity before the common Mother Church” (AAS. 1944. P. 137)

ccRegarding the pastoral care of the faithful of the Eastern Rites who are living in Latin Rite dioceses, in accordance with the spirit and letter of the Conciliar Decree Christus Dominus 23 and OrientaliumEcclesiarum4the Latin Ordinaries (bishops) of such dioceses are to provide as soon as possible for an adequate pastoral care of the faithful of these Eastern Rites, through the ministry of the priests or through parishes of the Rites, where this would be indicated, or through an Episcopal Vicar endowed with the necessary faculties where circumstances would so indicate” (Letter of Pope John Paul II to the bishops of India on May 28, 1987).

ccThe migrant has the right to pastoral care from the local Church. It should be emphasized that he or she has the right not to the generic pastoral care common to the whole body of the believers but to a specific ministry adopted to their language and especially their culture” (Message of John Paul II on World migration day 1990, L’Osservatore Romano, August 6, n.32, Vol.23 (1990), p.11.

ccI particularly urge the Latin ordinaries in these countries to study attentively, grasp thoroughly and apply faithfully the principles issued by the Holy See concerning ecumenical cooperation and the pastoral care of the Eastern Catholic Church especially when they lack their own hierarchy.” (John Paul II, Orientale Lumen (1995), n.9.

 “There is an urgent need to overcome the fears and misunderstandings which appear at times between the Catholic Eastern Churches and the Latin Church… especially with regard to the pastoral care of their people, also outside their own territories.” (John Paul II, Ecclesia in Asia, 1999, n.27.

Canonical Dispositions

ccThe Christian faithful have the right to worshipping God according to the prescriptions of their own Rite approved by the 2 legitimate pastors or the Church and to follow their own form of spiritual life consonant with the teaching of the Church” (CIC.214).

ccIf the local Ordinary has faithful of a different rite within his diocese, he is to provide for their spiritual needs either by means of the priests or parishes of that rite or by means of an Episcopal Vicar” (CIC. 383§2).

ccThe Christian faithful have the right to worship God according to the prescriptions of their own Church sui iuris, and to follow their own form of spiritual life consonant with the teaching of the Church” (CCEO. 17).

ccNo one can presume in any way to induce the Christian faithful to transfer to another Church sui iuris” (CCEO.31).

ccThe Christian faithful of the Eastern Churches even if committed to the care of a hierarch or pastor of another Church sui iuris, nevertheless remain enrolled in their own Church” (CCEO.38).

ccNo one can validly transfer to another Church sui iuris without the consent of the Holy See” (CCEO. 32§1).

ccThe Christian faithful of the Eastern Churches even if committed to the care of a hierarch or pastor of another Church sui iuris, nevertheless remain enrolled in their own Church” (CCEO.38).

ccThe eparchial bishop to whom the care of the Christian faithful of any other sui juris Church is committed is bound by the serious obligation of providing all the things in order that these Christian faithful retain the rite of their own Church, cultivate and observe it as much as they can; he should foster relations with the higher authority of that Church” (CCEO 193§1).

ccThe eparchial bishop is to provide for the spiritual needs of those Christian faithful, if it is possible, through the presbyters or pastors of the same Church sui iuris as the Christian faithful or even through a syncellus constituted for the care of these Christian faithful” (CCEO 193§2).

ccIn places where not even an exarchv has been erected for the Christian faithful of a certain Church sui iuris, the local hierarch of another Church sui iuris, even the Latin Church of the place is to be considered the proper hierarch of these faithful, with due regard for the prescription of can. 101; if, however, there are several local hierarchs, that one is to be considered their proper hierarch who has been appointed by the Apostolic See or, if it is a question of the Christian faithful of a patriarchal Church, by the Patriarch with the assent of the Apostolic See” (CCEO. 916§5).

Era migrantes Caritas Christi 

Erga migrantes caritas Christi is an instruction issued in 2004 by the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People.

ccWelcoming the stranger is intrinsic to the nature of the Church itself and bears witness to its fidelity to the Gospel” (n. 22).

ccWith regard to Catholic migrants the Church makes provision for a specific kind of pastoral care because of the diversity of language, origin, culture, ethnicity and tradition, or of belonging to a particular Church sui iuris with its own rite… The uprooting that moving abroad inevitably involves (from country of origin, family, language etc.) should not be made worse by uprooting the migrant from his religious rite or identity too” (n. 49).

ccWhen groups of immigrants are particularly numerous and homogeneous therefore, they are encouraged to keep up their specific Catholic traditions. In particular, efforts must be made to provide organised religious assistance by priests of the language, culture and rite of the migrants selecting the most suitable juridical option from among those foreseen by the CIC and the CCEO.” (n. 50)

ccEastern Rite Catholic migrants, whose numbers are steadily increasing, deserve particular pastoral attention. In their regard we should first of all remember the juridical obligation of the faithful to observe their own rite everywhere insofar as possible, rite being understood as their liturgical, theological, spiritual and disciplinary heritage (cf. CCEO Can. 28, §1 and PaG 72) (n.51).

All the above official teachings of the Church attest to the solicitude of the Church for the migrants and defend their pastoral rights. The official ecclesiastical position on the emigrants from the time of Lateran IV (1215) favoured providing ministers of the rite and language of the emigrants because migration is no reason to dissolve one’s birth- rite. The inability of the Syro-Malabar Church to cater to the spiritual and liturgical needs of the migrants can lead to their alienation and ultimate separation from the Mother Church. The only solution to solve the above issue is to extend jurisdiction everywhere in the world as territorial or personal. Any further delay in doing so will result in irreparable damage to the entire Catholic Church. Besides, it is also a question of keeping up the credibility of the Catholic claim that the Church stands for justice, peace and harmony. It is all the more right and just for the Church to allow the faithful to protect as well as foster their own faith traditions everywhere in India through the establishment of appropriate juridical structures proper to the sui iuris Church.

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The Little Flower Congregation (CST Fathers) is a Congregation of religious priests that traces its beginning on 19th March, 1931 in the Archdiocese of Ernakulam, Kerala. It was started as a society of Brothers under the name Little Flower Brotherhood by Very Rev. Fr. Thomas Panat later known as Father Basilius. It was re-organized into a religious institute (thereafter called Little Flower Congregation) with an approved constitution. The Canonical approval was given by the Archbishop of Ernakulam, Mar Augustine Kandathil for starting and reorganisingonDecember 27, 1945

The congregation was bifurcated to form a Congregation of Priests (CST Fathers) and a Congregation of Brothers (CST Brothers). His Holiness Pope John Paul II raised this Congregation of the Priests to the status of a Religious Institute of Pontifical Right on December 21, 1995. Little Flower who was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church in Rome on October 19, 1997 by His Holiness Pope John Paul II, is the Patroness of this Congregation.


The Little Flower Congregation, under the Patronage of St.Therese of Lisieux, has its origin on 19th March 1931 at Mookannur, a village 7 kilometers north east of Angamaly, Kerala, India. Father Thomas Panat started the Congregation out of his God-experience in Christ enhanced by his very personal devotion to St.Therese of Child Jesus. Simplicity and child-like surrender of the Little Flower to the will of God the Father had struck deep roots in his heart when he translated the four chapters of her autobiography entitled Navamalika. Fr. Basilius in his memoirs says: “With that (translation) I became enamoured of the life and the spirit of the Little Flower that erupted within and overflowed from the interior of my heart”. He intensely desired to share this experience with a few dedicated young men whom he eventually formed as the Little Flower Brotherhood (Cherupushpa Sahodara Sangham).

 On December 27, 1945 Archbishop Mar Agustine Kandathil accepted the formal petition of Fr. Thomas Panat seeking permission to admit candidates for priesthood into the ‘Cherupushpa Sahodara Sangham’ which then became a clerical religious institute known as Little Flower Congregation

A Short History of CMI Congregation

A Short History of CMI Congregation

 The Congregation of Carmelites of Mary Immaculate (CMI) is the first indigenous religious congregation in the Catholic Church of India. Fr. Thomas Palackal, Fr. Thomas Porukara and Fr. Kuriakose Chavara of the Syro-Malabar Church of apostolic origin, who felt that “a lot of good had not been done due to the absence of a Thapasu Bhavanam (House of Discipline) and a Darsana Veedu (House of Vision)”, had the challenging vision of providing spiritual leadership and fostering unity and growth in the Kerala Church. With the permission of Bishop Maurelius Stabilini, the then Vicar Apostolic of Verapoly, they founded a religious house at Mannanam on 11 May 1831. Jacob Kanianthara who later became the first professed brother in the Congregation, cooperated with the founding fathers from the beginning. The name of the Congregation was ‘Servants of Mary Immaculate’.

 Soon, some more priests and clerics joined the founding fathers and thus a small religious community took shape. On 8 December 1855, the religious Congregation was canonically approved and the first eleven fathers made their religious profession.  Blessed Chavara, the only surviving founder, was appointed the first superior of the Congregation. Since, during the early period of the religious Congregation, the Vicars Apostolic of Verapoly were Carmelites, the congregation had come under the Carmelite influence; hence, the rules of the Carmelites with some modifications were given to them in 1855.  In 1860, the community was affiliated to the Order of Carmelites Discalced with the name, ‘Third Order of the Carmelites Discalced’ (TOCD). The Constitutions were approved ad experimentum by the Apostolic See in 1885. In 1958, the name was changed to ‘Carmelites of Mary Immaculate’ (CMI).  The Congregation was granted pontifical exemption in 1967.

 From the very beginning, the religious life in the congregation was rooted in the Indian, Oriental and Carmelite spiritual traditions. Being contemplatives in action, the members engaged in such activities as the Church in Kerala was in need of at particular times.  They preached retreats, conducted seminaries for the training of the local clergy, met the challenge of educating the youth and disseminating Christian literature, laboured for the propogation of the faith and for the reunion of separated brethren, undertook works of mercy and started charitable institutions.

 The apostolate of the CMI Congregation gathered new dimension and momentum as mission areas were entrusted to it beyond the boundaries of Kerala.  In 1962, Chanda became the first mission ordinariate of the Syro-Malabar Church and was entrusted to the Congregation.  Since then, more mission dioceses and regions were erected in Central and North India.  There are now four dioceses in North India and one in South India entrusted to the Congregation, viz., Chanda, Jagdalpur, Bijnor, Rajkot and Adilabad. These five dioceses are headed by CMI Bishops.  This is indeed a milestone in the progress of the CMI missions and an abiding evidence of the recognition by the Apostolic See. Besides, many members are engaged in various kinds of apostolate in other parts of India and also in other countries.

 The Prior General, assisted by four Councillors, is at the head of the administration; the Prior General’s House at Chavara Hills in Kochi is the headquarters of the Congregation. For the sake of administration, the Congregation is divided into 14 provinces, one region and 5 sub-regions. At present the Congregation has about 3000 members including 5 bishops, 1539 priests, 2 permanent deacons, 34 brothers and 1300 brothers in formation.  More than half of the priests are working outside Kerala, of whom about 300 are doing pastoral services in 23 countries around the world.

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